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«EPIMONE AND DIATRIBE: DWELLING ON THE POINT IN PS.-HERMOGENES* Dedicated to Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Hans Herter In the IIsel flS{}6öov öSlv6TrrrO~ ...»

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Dedicated to Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Hans Herter

In the IIsel flS{}6öov öSlv6TrrrO~ attributed to Hermogenes the

term ÖtaTelß~ appears under the heading IIsel nSelTT6T'YJTO~ (section 5) and is defined as the "ßeaxio~ ÖtaVO~flaTo~'!j{}l'XOV B'XTaat~,

lva lflflslVrJ TO ij{}o~ TOV AiyoVTO~ lv Tff yvwflrJ TOV a'XoVoVTO~." 1) *) The following editions and standard works will be cited repeatedly

throughout this study by the abbreviations indicated:

a. Editions AristotIe, Ars Rhetorica - Aristotelis Ars Rhetorica, ed. R. Kassel (Berlin 197 6).

CalboIi-Cornifici Rhetorica ad C.Herennium, ed. with comm. by G.CalboIi (Edizioni e saggi universitari di filologia classica, Bologna 1969).

Caplan-[Cicero] Ad C.Herennium de ratione dicendi (Rhetorica ad Herennium) ed. with trans. by Harry Caplan (Cambridge, Loeb ed. 1954).

Halm-Rhetores Latini Minores, ed. C.Halm (Leipzig 1863).

Hermogenes-Hermogenis Opera, ed. H.Rabe (Stuttgart, rep. ed. 1969).

Peri methodou- "Hermogenes", IIeet IJ-e{}or5ov r5f;LvO-Crj1:oc; in Rabe's edition of Hermogenes, 414-456. The author of this work will be referred to as Ps.-Hermogenes.

Quintilian-M.Fabii Quintiliani Institutionis Oratoriae Libri XII, ed. L.Radermaeher (rec. V.Buchheit, Leipzig 1959), 2 vols.

Rhetorica ad Herennium or Rhet. ad Her.- [Cicero] Ad C. Herennium de ratione dicendi, ed. F.Marx (rec. W. Trillitzsch, Leipzig 1964).

Spengel-Rhetores Graeci, ed. L.Spengel (3 vols., Leipzig 1854-1856; vol. I, pt. 2, ed. C.Hammer, Leipzig 1894).

Walz-Rhetores Graeci, ed. C. Walz (9 vols., Stuttgart and Tübingen 1832b. Standard Works Ernesti-Lexicon Technologiae Graecorum Rhetoricae, ed. J.Ernesti (Leipzig

1795)· Kennedy, Roman-George Kennedy, The Art of Rhetoric in the Roman World, 300 B.C.-A.D. 300 (Princeton 1972).

Lausberg- H. Lausberg, Handbuch der literarischen Rhetorik, eine Grundlegung der Literaturwissenschaft (2 vols., München 1960) - numbers given will refer to sections in volume 1.

Martin- J.Martin, Antike Rhetorik, Technik und Methode (Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft II 3; München 1974).

1) Hermogenes 418. The tradition that Hermogenes wrote this treatise should be abandoned in view of E. Bürgi's studies entitled "Ist die dem Epimone and Diatribe: Dwelling on the Point in Ps.-Hermogenes 273 The author illustrates his definition by quoting the opening sentence of Demosthenes' oration Against Meidias ".~v pb aaeAyetaV ~a;'.~v i5ßetv, fJ ned~ änaV7:a~ ad xefj.at MetMa~, oVCJeva ovf}' vf-lwv ov.e.Wv aAAwv nOAt7:WV ayvoeiv o'tof-laL," an expansion of the thought ".~v f-lSv i5ßetV MetMov mlV7:e~ 'tau." The prooimion of Demosthenes' On the Crown is listed as a second example but not quoted.

The fact that Peri methodou is describing a rhetorical figure already was noticed by Johannes Ernesti in 1795 (p. 83). Ernesti gives commoratio, excursio, and eneuloCJtOv, "quo orator subinde utitur, ornatus atque amplificationis gratia," as terms equivalent to diatribe 2 ) in various rhetorical writings, inc1uding the Peri methodou, and his identifications are followed by the Thesaurus Linguae Craecae (TLC, Paris 1831-1865) in its artic1e CJta.etßf} (III 1359)' Unfortunate1y, the wide1y-used Liddell-Scott- Jones Creek English Lexicon 3 ) did not follow the TLC in this instance and thus became the probable source for some later confusion, wh n it defined diatribe in Peri methodou as a "short ethical treatise or leeture" and quoted only four words of the Greek definition, ßeaxeo~ &avof}f-la.o~ ijf}t~OV l~7:aat~.

Perhaps the errar in LSJ would have been of little importance, if Franz Susemihl had not also encountered diatribe in Peri methodou and cited the first ha;f of the Greek explanation (up to l~7:aO't~) to describe the Diatribai of Bion of Borysthenes 4). Susemihl refers to Walz's edition of the treatise (III 406), Hermogenes zugeschriebene Schrift I1f:ei pdJ600v OEw6Trrr:Ot; echt?", in Wiener Studien 48 (1930), 187-197, and 49 (1931), 40-69. See also D.Hagedorn, Zur Ideenlehre des Hermogenes (Hypomnemata 8,1964,84-85; L.Radermacher, "Hermogenes", RE 8, I, 872-873. I, therefore, will refer to the author of Peri methodou as Ps.-Hermogenes.

We should not ignore the possibility, however, that some of the material does go back to Hermogenes (cf. Bürgi, WS 1931, 69). Perhaps, as G.Kennedy has remarked (Roman 633), the work "contains genuine pieces of his theory loosely put together by some editor to supply a work whose existence was promised but not fulfilled."

2) Following the usual practice, I will treat all of the Latin and Greek names for rhetorical figures and technical terms as if they were English words. Most Greek terms, further, will be transliterated after their first appearance.

3) Revised ed. with supplement (Oxford 1968), 416, hereafter cited as LSj.

4) Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur in der Alexanderzeit I (Leipzig 1891), 36, note 1°5. The first modern scholar to apply diatribe to the works of Bion (but not in connection with its use in Peri methodou) seems to have been H. Usener in Epicurea (rep. ed. Stuttgart 1966, LXIX); cf. E. G.

18 Rhein. Mus. f. Philol. 123/3-4 Barbara Price Wallach

but prints ~{}tU~ Bu{}eau;, instead of Walz's ~{}tuov BU7:aat~, a change which obviously alters the meaning. With this version in mind Susemihl wrote that diatribes are "nichtdialogische, und zwar wohl mehr oder weniger zwanglose kurze Aufsätze über ethische Themen." His exclusion of dialogue was criticized by Rudolf Hirzel and Theodore Burgess 5), but neither of them corrected the misapplication of Ps.-Hermogenes' definition. Later, the direct influence of Susemihl appears in the work of G. C.

Fiske and D. R. Dudley. Fiske sees the diatribe of Bion as "a short disquisition of informal character upon an ethical theme," and he quotes the first half of the definition from Peri methodou, using the reading ~{}tU~ Bx{}eat~6). In his history of Cynicism Dudley writes " the definition ofHermogenes is worth quotingjta7:etß~ BaTt ßeaxio~ (jtavof;fla7:0~ ~{}tX~ Bx{}e(]t~ 'Diatribe is a moral exposition of some brief topic.''' 7) Dudley, like Fiske, cites Walz, III 406, despite the fact that ~{}tU~ Bx{}eat~ does not occur there, but rather seems to have come into circulation through Susemihl. More recently, C. J.

de Vogel, possibly relying on Dudley (whom she mentions in her bibliography), continues the unfortunate traditions of citing only part of "Hermogenes'" definition and of employing the reading ~{}tU~ Bx{}eat~8).

The misinterpretation of Ps.-Hermogenes' diatribe, however, is not limited to those influenced by Susemihl. For exarnple, in his "Eclectisme philosophique et lieux communs: a Schmid, "Diatribai", Der kleine Pauly Il 1577. On the word as a tide, see Susemihl, loc. cit., O.Halbauer, De diatribis Epicteti (Dissertation Leipzig 1911), 5-7; ].F.Kindstrand, Bion 0/ Borysthenes, A Collection 0/the Fragments with introduction and commentary (Studia Graeca Upsaliensia 11, Uppsala 1976), 23- 2 5.

5) R.Hirzel, Der Dialog, ein literarhistorischer Versuch I (Leipzig 1895) 369, note 2; T.C.Burgess, "Epideictic Literature", Studies in Classical Philology III (Chicago 1902) 235. Burgess quotes the definition after Spengel's text (Il 429), which has Tjr}"xov SxTaGU;.

6) Lucilius and Horace, a Study in the Classical Theory 0/ Imitation (University of Wisconsin Studies in Language and Literature 7, 1920; rep.

Hildesheim 1966), 180. In his footnote on the Hermogenes definition (note 136, p. 215) Fiske cites Walz IIl, 406, who, as we have stated, does not have the TjiJ",,"J Sx{)EGt,. Since Fiske cites Susemihl (I 36, n. 105) in his note 133, the influence of the German scholar's citation may be taken for granted.

7) A History 0/ Cynicism /rom Diogenes to the 6th Century A. D. (London 1937; rep. Hildesheim 1967), 11 I.

8) C.]. de Vogel, Creek Philosophy, A Collection 0/ Texts with Notes and Explanations, IlI, The Hellenistic Roman Period (Leiden 1959) 318. De Vogel also refers to Walz IIl, 406.

Epimone and Diatribe: Dwelling on the Point in Ps.-Hermogenes 275 propos de la 'diatribe romaine'" Alain Michel properly notes concerning "diatribe" that "les rheteurs donnaient a ce mot un sens technique precis." He then continues, "i! s'agissait d'une forme litteraire dans laquelle l'orateur repetait et developpait une pensee fondee sur l' 'ethos' pour la graver dans l'esprit de l'auditeur; on voit qu'il s'agit plutet de direction de conscience que de 'philosophie populaire.'" 9) Michel refers to TLG (IH 1359 B) as his source, and he clearly is offerring a paraphrase of the "Hermogenes" passage quoted there. The paraphrase is marred, naturally, by the insertion of the words "forme litteraire," which are not justined by the context of the Greek, and by the application of the description oE the ngure diatribe to the rhetorical genre commonly known as the Cynic-Stoic diatribe.

Another scholar, Michael Coffey, seems to have realized that the "Hermogenes" passage was not quite sufncient for a deseription oE the genre, but he still neither quotes the full definition nor corrects the misconceptions concerning it. Coffey writes oE diatribe that "the word was denned narrowly by Hermogenes, a Greek theorist of the second century A. D. as 'the development of a short ethical notion,' but it also comprised a wide range of moralizing discourse, reports of the teachings oE various sages, anecdotes, and ready-made ethical judgements." 10) The one benent that has resulted from the misunderstanding oE Ps.-Hermogenes' diatribe is the stress on the ethical content oE the genre diatribe. The absence of references to an interlocutor and the stress on brevity, however, can produce a distorted picture oE the rhetorical form used by Bion, Teles, and others. For instance, Oswyn Murray has written of the diatribe that "its elements are short ethical discussions on a theme, rhetorically developed and provided with numerous examples;

these could easily be combined to form longer treatises on a general topiC."ll) Further, Murray thinks that some sections of "philosophical works :reee;' ßamJ..eta,;" supply the best examples of the diatribe. We cannot digress here to indicate the merits

9) Latomus 70 (1964) 485, n. 1.

10) Roman Satire (London 1976), 92. Coffey's attitude seems to be elose to that of E.].Kenney (ed. Lucretius, De rerum natura, Book 111, Cambridge 1971, 17), who cites the Greek definition, following Rabe's text, but notes of "diatribe" that "in practice it approached the status of a subliterary genre, one of a number of such genres of a generally homiletic type."

II) "Philodemus on the Good King According to Homer," JRS 55 (1965) 173. Murray does not mention Hermogenes.

Barbara Pdce Wallach and disadvantages of such a view, but we should note that the basic description, with its omission of the interlocutor and its emphasis on brevity, seems to be related to those notions of diatribe based on Ps.-Hermogenes.

Thus fa.r in the present study we have seen examples of the misapplication of Ps.-Hermogenes' comments on diatribe, occasioned largely by disregard for the context in which the word appears in Peri methodou 12 ). It remains now for us to investigate that context and to show that diatribe there is a rhetorical figure, unrelated to the genre diatribe. In order to prove our contention we sha11 show that the term occurs in conjunction with three other figures, which we sha11 attempt to identify, and that, on the basis of the illustrations given by Ps.-Hermogenes, diatribe seems to be the equivalent of the figure bUf-loviJ} "dwelling on the point."

Our first concern must be with the nature of the Peri methodou and of the section entitled Peri perittotetos, which contains the definition under investigation. Study of the treatise would be greatily facilitated, if we could assume that Hermogenes is the author and therefore refer back to his IIegt lbewv as the final authority on a11 questions involving technical terms. Since it is unlikely that Hermogenes is the author (see note I above), however, even though some of the material may go back to hirn, we must be cautious about any assumption that certain passages in the Peri methodou rest on an Hermogenean basis. The contents of the treatise have aptly been described as "a series of disconnected chapters, on figures and other aspects of style," 13) and bear little resemblance to the careful order of a work such as

12) The most recent example of this common er rar seems to be G. L.

Kustas, "Diatribe in Ancient Rhetorical Theory", Protocol 0/ the TwentySecond Colloquy 0/ the Center /or Hermeneutical Studies in Hellenistic and Modern Culture(Berkeley 1976),1-15 (cited hereafter as Kustas, "Diatribe"). Compare my remarks in the same volume, 27-32. In my dissertation, A History 0/ the Diatribe /rom its Origin up to the First Century B. C. and a Study 0/ the Influence 0/ the Genre upon Lucretius III, SjO-I094 (University of IlIinois at Urbana-Champaign 1974), which Kustas cites on 1,4, and 6, I quoted Peri methodou's complete definition and gave a brief analysis, pointing out that it is explaining a figure and has nothing to do with the genre "diatribe" (pp. 16-18 and 319, notes 10-15). Kustas (6-9) includes a partial translation and paraphrase of Ps.-Hermogenes' discussion of diatribe and of the remarks on that passage made by the 12th century commentator Gregory of Corinth, who also is mentioned by Ernesti (83). The text of Gregory's commentary on Peri methodou is in Walz VII, pt. 2, 1090-1352.

13) Kennedy, Roman, 633.

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