WWW.DIS.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, dissertations, books
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

«CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS Eileen Bartholomew Senior Vice President, Prizes Sara Jennings Associate, Prize Development David Schroeder Consultant, Prize ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

CARBON CONVERSION

LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS

December 2014

PRINCIPAL AUTHORS

Alisa Ferguson

Consultant, Prize Development

Christopher Frangione

Vice President, Prize Development

CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS

Eileen Bartholomew

Senior Vice President, Prizes

Sara Jennings

Associate, Prize Development

David Schroeder

Consultant, Prize Development

Stephanie Shapiro Associate, Prize Development XPRIZE Foundation 800 Corporate Pointe, Suite 350 Culver City, CA 90230 T (310) 741-4880 F (310) 741-4974 www.xprize.org

CARBON CONVERSION LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS 2

PRIZE DEVELOPMENT FUNDED BY

XPRIZE would like to thank Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. and Canada’s Oil Sands Innovation Alliance for their partnership and support.

CARBON CONVERSION LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABOUT THIS REPORT

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

PRIZE DESIGN PROCESS

PROJECT BACKGROUND AND MARKET SITUATION ANALYSIS

GRAND CHALLENGE

ENERGY AND GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT

THE SCALE OF CO2 EMISSIONS

REIMAGINING CO2 EMISSIONS

ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS AND MARKET FAILURES

CONCLUSION

APPENDIX: INTERVIEWEES

CARBON CONVERSION LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS 4

ABOUT THIS REPORT

This report is a landscape analysis of carbon conversion technologies that was created as part of a formal prize design process for a Carbon XPRIZE. This report summarizes the primary and secondary research and analysis conducted during the prize design with the goal of informing the development of a prize competition that would incentivize innovations around converting CO2 into valuable products.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Energy drives the global economy. As developing countries continue to grow, they will also continue to seek sources of affordable, abundant energy. And projections show that countries around the globe will continue to get a majority of this energy from fossil fuels. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), despite increased deployment of alternatives, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the global power sector, declining only slightly from 68 percent in 2011 to 57 percent in 2035.1 However, fossil fuels also account for a majority (57 percent) of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In order to address CO2 emissions and the potential effects of climate change, which are difficult to predict but potentially dramatic, the world must continue to accelerate deployment of new energy technologies. No single technology solution will be able to manage the CO2. Rather, the world will require a portfolio of carbon mitigation solutions and low-carbon and zero-carbon energy sources.

Today, CO2 emissions from power plants and other industrial facilities are viewed primarily as a problem—a waste product and a liability. While CO2 is currently re-used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and some niche applications, it has the potential to be an even greater asset for the industrial sector and consumers around the world. We know that CO2 can be a valuable asset—a building block for a wide variety of products we use every day. However, a number of key market failures have slowed development of innovative technologies for converting CO2 into valuable products.

It’s time to reimagine CO2 emissions!

International Energy Agency. (November 12, 2013). World Energy Outlook 2013 factsheet. Retrieved from www.worldenergyoutlook.org/media/weowebsite/factsheets/WEO2013_Factsheets.pdf

–  –  –

XPRIZE IS AN INNOVATION ENGINE.

A facilitator of exponential change. A catalyst for the benefit of humanity.

We provide the thought leadership and expertise to identify the Grand Challenges of our time—the national or global crises, market failures, and opportunities where solutions are thought to be either out of reach or just plain impossible. We then design and operate incentivized prize competitions to solve these problems.

XPRIZE acts as a convening platform, bringing together passionate partners to accelerate a positive future based upon our vision of a preferred state. These partners include sponsors, entrepreneurs, philanthropists, industry, government, academia, and innovators who help us make the impossible possible.

We don’t dictate the solution. We ask the right questions. And we provide the platform, global visibility, credibility, and opportunity for our partners to take risks that ultimately lead to radical breakthroughs. Together, we create the future. The result? Averted crises. Revitalized markets. Better technologies. New industries. And empowered people.

XPRIZE accomplishes this by creating large-scale, market-driven, incentivized prize competitions that focus global innovators on goals that are audacious but achievable. We leverage the intellectual and financial capital necessary to stimulate research and development, yielding measurable results and efficiency that ensure our supporters consistently back winning solutions.





The design of an XPRIZE competition is guided by the following principles:

XPRIZEs result in innovations that make a lasting impact. Although a technological • breakthrough may meet this criterion, so do prizes that inspire teams to use existing technologies, knowledge, and/or systems in more effective ways.

XPRIZEs legitimize a field of interest, making it possible for teams to attract support for their • efforts.

XPRIZEs generate popular interest through the prize life cycle:

• o Enrollment: The world is introduced to the players. Prizes ideally encourage the participation of a wide range of participants—from leading thinkers in relevant fields to maverick inventors and entrepreneurs. These rare individuals are often as difficult to identify as the proverbial “needle in a haystack.” XPRIZEs attract these “needles” to solve seemingly impossible problems.

–  –  –

o Post-Win: Retrospectively, competitions are regarded as landmark events that revolutionized an industry or opened up new markets.

XPRIZE competitions incorporate elements of both technological innovation and successful • real-world deployment. An innovation that is too costly or too inconvenient to deploy widely will not win.

XPRIZE competitions engage multidisciplinary innovators who would otherwise be unlikely to • tackle the problems that the prize is designed to address.

XPRIZE competitions promote collaboration in the quest to find a solution.

• In developing prizes for more than 15 years, XPRIZE has become expert in prize design. The XPRIZE prize design process is anchored in an open collaboration model, which is designed to enable many external constituencies to contribute to the process. Input from innovators, industry leaders, academia, government, non-governmental organizations, and the general public is routinely and formally sought.

The ideas that emerge from this collaboration are vetted through XPRIZE’s formal prize design process to ensure the design of the best competition possible. XPRIZE develops competitions in areas where market failures have limited progress or exhausted resources.

During the prize design process, XPRIZE identifies and analyzes the underlying market failures that a prize can address, focusing on the technological, market, behavioral, and policy sectors that could be impacted and changed by a prize. XPRIZE engages with technology experts, industry advisors, and creative thought leaders to identify and prioritize prize concepts and technical parameters that can best solve market failures. For the leading prize concept(s), XPRIZE then creates a set of initial prize concepts.

Once XPRIZE and its sponsors agree to move forward with a single prize concept, that concept is truly crafted into an XPRIZE competition. XPRIZE defines the value proposition and stakeholders, and develops detailed plans for the launch, operation, and awarding of the prize. Additionally, XPRIZE finalizes competition guidelines and establishes success criteria for the competition, including detailed team and sponsor business, marketing, and promotional strategies. XPRIZE also lays out a detailed operations strategy that defines the operational, sponsorship, marketing, educational, and financial resource requirements for all competition partners, sponsors, and stakeholders.

–  –  –

GRAND CHALLENGE

Energy drives the global economy. As developing countries continue to grow, demand for energy will also increase. Today and for decades to come, the most affordable and abundant energy will continue to come from fossil fuels, which are the largest contributor to global CO2 emissions. In order to address CO2 emissions and the potential effects of climate change, which are difficult to predict but potentially dramatic, the world must continue to accelerate deployment of new energy technologies.

Reducing the world's CO2 emissions cannot be addressed by any single technology. Rather, the world will require a portfolio of carbon mitigation solutions and low-carbon and zero-carbon energy sources to make any significant impact on reducing CO2 emissions.

ENERGY AND GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT

Energy drives the global economy, and demand for energy—especially from developing countries— will only continue to increase. More than a decade ago, research from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory found a correlation between the United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI)2 and annual per capita electricity consumption. In a study of 60 populous countries comprising 90 percent of the world’s population, the study found that HDI reaches a maximum value when electricity consumption is about 4,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) per person annually. As Figure 1 below illustrates, this amount of energy is well below consumption levels for most developed countries and well above the level for developing countries.3 The Human Development Index is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi Pasternak, Alan D. (October 2000). Global energy futures and human development: a framework for analysis. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Retrieved from https://e-reportsext.llnl.gov/pdf/239193.pdf

CARBON CONVERSION LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS 8

FIGURE 1. Correlation Between Annual Per Capita Electricity Use and Human Development As developing countries continue to grow—in terms of both economic and human development—they will also continue to seek sources of affordable, abundant energy. For the most part, they will find this energy in the form of fossil fuels. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), despite increased investment in alternatives, fossil fuels will continue to dominate the global power sector, declining only slightly from 68 percent in 2011 to 57 percent in 2035.4 Without accelerated deployment of carbon mitigation technologies in addition to low-carbon and zero-carbon energy sources, the already massive volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will grow even higher in the coming decades.

International Energy Agency. (November 12, 2013). World Energy Outlook 2013 factsheet. Retrieved from www.worldenergyoutlook.org/media/weowebsite/factsheets/WEO2013_Factsheets.pdf

–  –  –

CO2 emissions from fossil fuels comprise the majority (57 percent) of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.5 Figure 2 below illustrates the breakdown of CO2 emissions by GHG type.6 FIGURE 2. Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Type of Gas According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), CO2 emissions from fossil fuels have increased by more than 16 times since 1900. Figure 3 illustrates the trajectory of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels between 1900 and 2008.

International Energy Agency. (n.d.). Climate change. Retrieved from www.iea.org/topics/climatechange U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). Global greenhouse gas emissions data. Retrieved from www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/global.html

–  –  –

In order to address CO2 emissions and the potential effects of climate change, which are difficult to predict but potentially dramatic, the world must continue to accelerate deployment of new energy technologies. However, no single technology solution will be capable of addressing CO2 emissions.

Boden, Tom, Bob Andres, and Gregg Marland. (July 30, 2013). Global CO2 emissions form fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacture, and gas flaring: 1751–2010. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved from http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/ndp030/global.1751_2010.ems U.S. Energy Information Administration. (n.d.). International energy statistics. Retrieved from www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=90&pid=1&aid=8&cid=r1,r3,r7,&syid=2010&eyid=2 011&unit=MMTCD U.S. Energy Information Administration. (August 23, 2013). FAQ: How much of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions are associated with electricity generation? Retrieved from www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=77&t=11

–  –  –

REIMAGINING CO2 EMISSIONS

Today, CO2 emissions from power plants and other industrial facilities are viewed primarily as a problem—a waste product and a liability.

While CO2 is currently re-used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and some niche applications, it has the potential to be an even greater asset for the industrial sector and consumers around the world.

But carbon is also a fundamental building block of the earth, and has the potential to be converted into a wide variety of high-value materials and products.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 |


Similar works:

«CUSTOM BRICK™ DS154 Architectural Finish For Use On Vertical Walls Custom Brick Finish Polymer System Application Instructions For Use On Vertical Walls Custom Brick Polymer Finish System Application Instructions DS154 Recommended Tools For Installation of Custom Brick Polymer Finish System 1. Variable Speed Drill capable of producing 1000 RPM’s 2. Wind-lock B-M1 mixing blade or equivalent 3. Extension Cord 4. Hand Grinding Stone 5. Builders Square 6. Tape Measure 7. Level 8. White Chalk...»

«Electronic Payment Processing Software Setup Guide and User's Manual Copyright 2010, VeriFone Inc. PCC-5-9-3 Notice Copyright 2010, VeriFone Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. VeriFone, the VeriFone logo, PAYware, PAYware PC, PAYware PC, and PCCharge are registered trademarks of VeriFone Inc. Other brand names or trademarks associated with VeriFone products and services are trademarks of VeriFone, Inc. All other brand names and trademarks appearing in this manual are the property of...»

«Panther Press Louisville Elementary School http://schools.bvsd.org/les/index.html 720-561-7200— main number, 720-561-7202— attendance line Volume IX, No. 5 Jennifer Rocke December 18, 2015 Dear LES Families, Closing the calendar year at LES with our all-school sing-a-long was a definite highlight this month! The sense of school community among students, staff, and LES alumni who performed with the LMS choir was strong and resounding! In addition, our own LES Larks Choir made up of fourth...»

«Breaking the optimality barrier: does neoclassical urban theory necessarily predict an optimal city size? OSTAP PETRASYUK* Abstract: This paper is an attempt to find out if neoclassical urban system models necessarily predict the existence of an optimum city size. Using an existing model and empirical data, the paper finds out that optimum city size is not an inevitable implication of the model, and though the concept is apparently correct in general, there may be exceptions from inverted...»

«DERBYSHIRE COALITION OF DISABLED PEOPLE DERBYSHIRE CENTRE FOR INTEGRATED LIVING CENTRAL TRAINING RESOURCE DISABILITY ISSUES RESOURCE NOTES: Power, Oppression and Disability Ken Davis, DCDP, February 1993 POWER, OPPRESSION AND DISABILITY SO HOW ARE DISABLED PEOPLE OPPRESSED? Most people, when they imagine a particular part of society as oppressed, have a vision of a group of people usually a minority group which has no rights, let alone privileges, that is despised and/or hated by those which...»

«EXCMO. AYUNTAMIENTO DE TALAVERA DE LA REINA GESTIÓN TRIBUTARIA ORDENANZA FISCAL REGULADORA DEL IMPUESTO SOBRE VEHÍCULOS DE TRACCIÓN MECÁNICA. Artículo 1º.De conformidad con lo previsto en el artículo 95.4 del Real Decreto Legislativo 2/2004, de 5 de marzo, por el que se aprueba el texto refundido de la Ley Reguladora de las Haciendas Locales, el coeficiente de incremento de las cuotas del Impuesto sobre Vehículos de Tracción Mecánica aplicable en este Municipio queda fijado en los...»

«Aus dem Institut für Tieranatomie der Tierärztlichen Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Lehrstuhl für Tieranatomie, insbesondere Systematische und Topographisch-klinische Anatomie Vorstand: Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. H.-G. Liebich Die Altersschätzung des Pferdes auf Grund morphologischer Veränderungen an den Zähnen Eine Literaturstudie mit einem Lernprogramm zur Zahnaltersschätzung Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der tiermedizinischen Doktorwürde der...»

«The Impact of Crisis-related Changes in Trade Flows on Employment, Incomes, Regional and Sectoral Development in Brazil April 2010 Scott McDonald 1 Marion Jansen 2 Erik von Uexkull 3 DRAFT 4 Oxford Brookes University ILO ILO Disclaimer: This paper represents research in progress. It represents the opinion of the authors and is not meant to represent the position or opinions of the ILO or its Members, nor the official position of any staff members. Any errors are the fault of the authors. The...»

«Opas Engel The overview of sound services for it would try in plan has pending member in only 21st puts. The few way stairs will already make yourself clearly how specific credit buzz making to be of the person. Possible year trademarks want achieving the $3 JV, Financial started employment. The useful programs able of you, and Life Year 1.revanetwork.com are! Of you compare that modern outlook, find translucent their credit, investment and realistic companies have all to adjust and need you...»

«11 Campfire Cookbook compiled by Sharon Martin Forward I realised quite a long time ago that when it came to camping and cooking – you were on your own! Any food that you cooked or recipes that you came across were often gained by ‘word of mouth’, no pun intended. Occasionally, if you went to camp with another group, you would pick up another idea, another method of cooking or another recipe that you would subsequently take to your next camp and use yourself. Food or menus can get boring...»

«Do You Need a New Donor Management System? A STEP-BY-STEP DECISION-MAKING WORKBOOK March 2011 WELCOME! Without an effective system to track donors and other constituents, you can spend too much time just trying to figure out who to contact and miss out on many fundraising opportunities. Most organizations have some kind of database to track all the different kinds of people they work with, but is it the right one? Maybe you’ve had doubts about your current system for a while, but were...»

«OFFICEJET PRO 8600 Benutzerhandbuch HP Officejet Pro 8600 e-Allin-One Series Benutzerhandbuch 7. Wenn das Produkt nicht einwandfrei Copyright-Informationen funktioniert, lesen Sie weitere © 2013 Copyright Hewlett-Packard Informationen im Abschnitt Beheben Development Company, L.P. von Problemen. Ausgabe 1, 4/2013 8. Im Inneren des Geräts befinden sich keine vom Endnutzer Hinweise von Hewlettinstandsetzbaren Teile. Beauftragen Packard Company Sie mit Wartung und Instandsetzung qualifiziertes...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dis.xlibx.info - Thesis, dissertations, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.