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«Calculator Instructions - Bookmarked Table of Contents Introduction Buffer Tank Design Passive Solar Altitude Angle Cross Flow Turbine Design Blade ...»

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Calculator Instructions - Bookmarked Table of Contents

Introduction

Buffer Tank Design Passive Solar Altitude Angle Cross Flow Turbine Design Blade Stress Analysis (Euler-Bernoulli)

Building Assembly Moisture Analysis Passive Solar Roof Overhang Design Ditch Capacity Blade Stress Analysis (Verhaart)

Cooling Load Analysis Passive Solar Fenestration Exposure Electric Pump Capacity Bullet Ballistic Coefficient Evaporative Cooler Performance Passive Solar Heat Gain Fish Screen By-Pass Tank External Ballistics Existing Building Energy Usage Analysis Passive Solar Thermal Mass Performance Hydraulic Ram Pump Performance Firearm Iron Sight Adjustment Expansion Tank Design Hydroelectric Capacity ICF Performance Heat Loss Analysis Orifice Plate Capacity Isolation Stand Design Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating Design Overshot Water Wheel Design Planimeter Integrated Cooling System Performance Pipe & Pump System Design (D-W) Pulley Drive System Design Integrated Heating System Performance Pipe & Pump System Design (H-W) Shaft Stress Analysis (Soderberg) Masonry Heater Performance Pipe Capacity (H-W) Psychrometrics Sprinkler Capacity Steady State Room Temperature Analysis Undershot Water Wheel Design Copyright © 2009-2016 by Borst Engineering & Construction LLC. All rights reserved.

Introduction Often times you have to do a project yourself to obtain the best value and achieve 100% personal satisfaction.

We are do it yourself (DIY) minded at heart and we support like-minded people. We believe that being selfreliant and building energy efficient homes that use renewable energy resources in a responsible manner is a good philosophy for our planet. To this end, these calculators were developed to enable everyone who shares this philosophy an opportunity to accomplish this goal. Please use these calculators and the results they provide at your own discretion and at your own risk...we are NOT responsible for any damage or harm that you may inflict on yourself or on others...please read and comply with our Terms of Use located at the bottom of our website pages.

The first page of this Adobe Portable Document File (PDF) contains a bookmarked Table of Contents (TOC) to assist you in navigating to the specific set of instructions for the calculator that you would like to use. There is a Return to TOC link at the end of each set of instructions. The calculator titles in the beginning of each specific set of instructions hyperlink to the actual calculators that are hosted on our high speed file server.

All of our Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating, Passive Solar Heating, Water Work Project and Sundry calculators were developed using JavaScript code that runs using your trusted browser application. As such, all of our calculators may be used on your PC or on your mobile device. Our calculators only run for a brief time after you actually click a button. Therefore, unlike some applications, you are not downloading software that may run continuously in the background and may contain malware that mines your personal data too. You may always view ALL of the JavaScript code that is used in our calculators by right clicking the calculator form and selecting "View Page Source." Our calculator design objective was to use a very simple user interface and only the minimal inputs required to properly solve each specific engineering design problem. Multiple calculators are used in some cases (e.g., our passive solar design calculators) to break up each engineering design problem into logical design phases. After you have obtained the calculator solution, you may save your results by right clicking the calculator form and selecting “Print” to create a PDF.

We welcome your feedback and suggestions for improving these DIY calculators and associated instructions. The development and maintenance of these DIY calculators and associated instructions is supported 100% by voluntary user contributions. If you found this information to be useful, please consider making a $10 donation which can be accomplished quickly and securely by credit card.

Robert G. Borst PE, CWRE, RMI CEO & Principal Engineer Borst Engineering & Construction LLC www.BorstEngineeringConstruction.com Copyright © 2009-2016 by Borst Engineering & Construction LLC. All rights reserved.

Buffer Tank Design Calculator This calculator enables you to properly design/size a buffer tank for use in a hydronic radiant floor heating system. A properly designed/sized buffer tank will prevent the hydronic radiant heat source (e.g., boiler or heat pump) from short cycling which, if allowed to occur, will significantly decrease the life expectancy of the heat source.

When low thermal mass heat sources are combined with zoned hydronic radiant distribution systems, it is possible for the heat source to short cycle when only a couple of these zones call for heat. This occurs because the rate of heat produced by the heat source is much greater than the rate of heat used/released by these zones. Low thermal mass heat sources in combination with low volume hydronic circuit and distribution systems cannot absorb this excess heat rate without experiencing a rapid rise in temperature. This causes the heat source to reach its high temperature limit very quickly resulting in very short on times and short cycling.

While electric heating elements may tolerate short cycling, gas valves, oil burners, ignition systems, and compressors will have a significantly reduced life expectancy.





Before using this calculator, you should first exercise our Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating Design Calculator to properly design the hydronic radiant floor heating system, to determine the actual heat source supply temperature that will be used, to determine the allowed circuit temperature drop, and to determine the heat output of all the zones. As discussed in the hydronic radiant floor heating design calculator instructions, some States do not even require a contractor license, any insurance, or any bonding. There are many online companies in the HVAC industry that operate from these States without any licensing credentials, requisite knowledge, experience, or proficiency. Therefore, you should definitely apply due diligence when selecting your hydronic radiant floor heating system design/installation team. We highly recommend using a licensed/experienced professional engineering company to perform the analysis/design and using a licensed/experienced HVAC company to install the system.

To use this calculator, enter ALL of the following required input parameters as indicated:

1) Hydronic Fluid Mixture (Percent Propylene Glycol/Water) - This is the percentage of propylene glycol used in the hydronic fluid. You should NEVER use ethylene glycol in a hydronic heating system. You may enter any valve between 0 and 50% to specify the concentration of propylene glycol you will use. If you elect to use propylene glycol, you should use at least 30% to inhibit the growth of bacteria in the system. Propylene glycol has a higher viscosity than water (which will result in increased hydraulic friction) and a lower specific heat than water (which will result in reduced heat transfer). Therefore, using propylene glycol will result in a less efficient heating system. As such, you should avoid using propylene glycol unless you are actually at risk of freezing the tube. We recommend using 100% water and entering 0 into the calculator. Please use this same value in our Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating Design Calculator and Expansion Tank Design Calculator.

2) Heat Source + Misc Hydronic Fluid Volume (Gallons) - This is the volume of hydronic fluid contained in the heat source and miscellaneous distribution pipe leading to/from the manifold station(s). The volume of hydronic fluid contained by the buffer tank should NOT be included because this is the currently unknown volume that is determined by this calculator. You may enter 0 to obtain a conservative Minimum Buffer Tank Volume output parameter.

Copyright © 2009-2016 by Borst Engineering & Construction LLC. All rights reserved.

3) Circuit Hydronic Fluid Volume (Gallons) - This is the volume of hydronic fluid contained in all the circuits of the smallest zone that may call for heat. This volume may be obtained from our Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating Design Calculator. You may enter 0 to obtain a conservative Minimum Buffer Tank Volume output parameter.

4) System Load (BTU/Hour) - This is the minimum system heat load placed on the heat source that results when the smallest BTU/Hour zone that may call for heat does so at the historically expected average monthly outdoor temperature when the system will actually be operated (i.e., when the lowest expected required heat gain occurs in the smallest BTU/Hour zone when the system will be operated). You may exercise our Heat Loss Analysis Calculator using this historically expected average monthly outdoor temperature instead of the historical Winter heating 99% dry bulb temperature (i.e., instead of the coldest expected 99% annual outdoor temperature which is normally used for this calculator for determining maximum system heat load) to estimate this minimum system heat load which corresponds to the Total Heat Loss (BTU/Hour) output parameter at this historically expected average monthly outdoor temperature.

5) Heat Source Output (BTU/Hour) - This is the heat output that the heat source will provide the system load. This is typically the maximum heat source output, however, this may be the minimum heat output if the heat source is capable of reducing its heat output as the system load decreases.

6) Heat Source High Temp Setting (Degrees Fahrenheit) - This is the highest temperature that the heat source has been set and is allowed to reach before it turns off.

7) Heat Source Low Temp Setting (Degrees Fahrenheit) - This is the lowest temperature that the heat source has been set and is allowed to reach before it turns on.

Heat Source Minimum Cycle Time (Minutes) - This is the desired minimum length of “on time” 8) that the heat source will be allowed to operate. Heat pump manufacturers typically recommend a minimum of 5 to 10 minutes. Boiler manufacturers typically recommend a minimum of 10 minutes. Longer cycle times will typically result in higher heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) and higher boiler Average Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE).

Click after initially entering ALL of the required input parameters or after changing ANY of the required

input parameters to obtain the following output parameters:

1) Tank Minimum Required Volume (Gallons) - This is the minimum volume that the buffer tank must be to achieve the desired Heat Source Minimum Cycle Time input parameter. For economic reasons, it is preferable to use a buffer tank size that just meets or slightly exceeds this minimum volume.

Please exercise our Expansion Tank Design Calculator to properly design and setup a diaphragm-type expansion tank which is always required in a hydronic radiant floor heating system to protect it from potentially destructive hydronic fluid expansion.

Copyright © 2009-2016 by Borst Engineering & Construction LLC. All rights reserved.

It is important that you do a proper building heat loss analysis, circuit/zone design, and hydronic radiant floor heat gain analysis BEFORE actually constructing the system. If you are working with a company who cannot perform this analysis and provide data that is sealed/signed by a licensed professional engineer for the specific design and location, you should apply due diligence and consider finding a more competent company to do this. If you find that you need this service, we hope that you will consider Borst Engineering and Construction.

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Copyright © 2009-2016 by Borst Engineering & Construction LLC. All rights reserved.

Building Assembly Moisture Analysis Calculator Besides providing the required insulation properties necessary to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature with minimal use of cooling/heating energy, a well-designed building envelope (e.g., ceilings, floors, and walls) will accomplish two other important design objectives: 1) keep water and water vapor from getting into the building assembly and 2) allow any water or water vapor that does manage to get in, to get out as quickly as possible.

This calculator is based on the 2013 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Fundamentals Handbook historical steady-state dew-point or Glaser methodology for evaluating moisture accumulation and drying within building envelopes. Please see our Psychrometrics Calculator for more information about dew-point and psychrometrics in general. There are several limitations to this moisture analysis method which should be recognized and fully considered. Vapor diffusion is the only moisture transport mechanism considered by this method and this calculator. Building assembly air infiltration/ventilation, building assembly material moisture capillary transport, direct rain intrusion/wetting, and solar heating moisture transport mechanisms are NOT considered and these moisture transport mechanisms may often be very significant when they exist. Much more accurate building assembly moisture analysis is possible using transient software models which are capable of considering all of these moisture transport mechanisms as well as the humidity, pressure, and temperature initial conditions.

In order to use this calculator, you will first need to look up the R-values and permeance values of the materials used to construct the building envelope. The following is a list of R-values (in units of Degrees F-Hour-Square

Feet/BTU) for material commonly used in the building construction industry:

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A perm rating of 1.0 represents 1 grain of water passing through 1 square foot of material in 1 hour. One pound or 16 fluid ounces of water is equal to 7000 grains. If the building assembly layer has a permeance of



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