«►Diffusion/Moisture protection ►Element connections and Isothermen ►Noise protection Examples of application of Building physics Content Page ...»
Examples of application
of Building physics
►Element connections and
Examples of application of Building physics
Block A: Diffusion/Moisture protection
1. Solid construction, External wall 6
2. Solid construction, Flat roof 8
3. Steep roof 10
4. Monthly calculation EN ISO 13788 11 Block B: Element connections and isotherms
1. Wall corner 14
2. Concrete column 16
3. Window connection 18
4. Floor with balcony connection and a flat roof 20
5. Thermal bridge loss coefficient 22
6. Mould investigation 24 Block C: Noise protection
1. Solid construction, Apartment separating wall 27
2. Solid construction, Apartment separating ceiling 30
3. Solid construction, External wall 33
4. Framed structure, Office separating wall 36
5. Timber frame structure, Timber beam ceiling 38
6. Apartment separating wall with EN 12354 40 Examples of application of Building physics Page 2
GENERALIcon-switch Calculation form Font magenta: Form-field, here is data lodged (DIN-norms / standards) Font blue: Manual changes Click with mouse on icon-switch or form-field ⇒ Function appears
Main groups Insert layer Subgroups Characteristic material data Examples of application of Building physics Page 3 References – German and European standards DIN - German Standard EN - European Norm ISO - International Standard Organization Diffusion/Moisture (Thermal insulation) DIN 4108-1 Thermal insulation in buildings; quantities and units DIN 4108-2 Thermal protection and energy economy in buildings - Part 2: Minimum requirements to thermal insulation DIN 4108-3 Thermal protection and energy economy in buildings - Part 3: Protection against mois ture subject to climate conditions; Requirements and directions for design and construc tion DIN 4108-7 Thermal insulation and energy economy of buildings - Part 7: Airtightness of building, re quirements, recommendations and examples for planning and performance DIN V 4108-10 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings - Application-related requirements for thermal insulation materials - Part 10: Factory made products, (Pre-standard) DIN 4108 Bbl.1 Thermal insulation in buildings; indexes; list of subjects DIN 4108 Bbl.2 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings - Thermal bridges - Examples for planning and performance DIN EN ISO 6946 Building components and building elements - Thermal resistance and thermal transmit tance - Calculation method; German version EN ISO 6946:1996 + A1:2003 DIN EN ISO 10077-1 Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters - Calculation of thermal transmit tance - Part 1: Simplified method; German version EN ISO 10077-1:2000 DIN EN ISO 10077-2 Thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters - Calculation of thermal transmit tance - Part 2: Numerical method for frames; German version EN ISO 10077-2:2003
DIN EN ISO 10211-1 Thermal bridges in building construction - Heat flows and surface temperatures - Part 1:
General calculation methods; German version EN ISO 10211-1:1995 DIN EN ISO 10211-2 Thermal bridges in building construction - Calculation of heat flows and surface temper atures - Part 2: Linear thermal bridges; German version EN ISO 10211-2:2001 DIN EN ISO 13788 Hygrothermal performance of building components and building elements - Internal sur face temperature to avoid critical surface humidity and interstitial condensation - Calcula tion methods; German version EN ISO 13788:2001
DIN 4109 Sound insulation in buildings; requirements and testing DIN 4109/A1 Sound insulation in buildings - Requirements and verifications; Amendment A1 DIN 4109-10 Sound insulation in buildings - Part 10: Proposals for improved sound insulation for hous ing, (Draft standard) DIN 4109 Bbl.1 Sound insulation in buildings; construction examples and calculation methods DIN 4109 Bbl.1/A1 Sound insulation in buildings - Construction examples and calculation methods; Amend ment A1 DIN 4109 Bbl.2 Sound insulation in buildings; guidelines for planning and execution; proposals for in creased sound insulation; recommendations for sound insulation in personal living and working areas DIN 4109 Bbl.3 Sound insulation in buildings - Calculation of R'w,R for assessing suitability as defined in DIN 4109 on the basis of the sound reduction index Rw determined in laboratory tests
*no standard, recommendations of Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (Society of Germen Engineers) Examples of application of Building physics Page 5 Block A: Diffusion/Moisture protection A.1 Calculation of diffusion for a solid construction – external wall
Design the shown external wall made of vertically perforated lightweight bricks and a thermal insula tion sandwich system made of PS-rigid foam and mineral plaster on the outside. Perform the diffusion proof according to DIN 4108 and display the shown graphics.
Instructions step by step Create a new project. To do so choose the form „Project“ and click on the icon-switch „New“. Now follow the dia log and avoid characters like dots, double dots and spaces for the short project label.
Short label: Seminar Confirm working directory Project title: Block A B C
Form „Project“ Icon-switch „Project table“ A window opens: Project overview, choose in there „create new project“ and follow the dialog.
To create an element cross section, shift to the calculation form „Elements“ and use icon-switch „New“. Select “External wall” as element type and enter the name „External wall A1“. After closing this dialog the material assist ant will open. The cross section is built layer by layer starting from the inside. Choose main group: „PlasterScreed-Coat“ and than subgroup „3 Gypsum / Lime plaster“. You can now transfer the material into the elements cross section (control box on the right side) with a double-click on “Gypsum plaster“ (in the white choice window) or by selecting the corresponding material in the same white choice window (characteristic material data will be shown in a blue font to the right) and a click on “Layer …⇒“. You may click on the blue writing to change the properties. In our case it will be done later at a different position. Repeat this process to define the other layers.
Main group: Masonry Subgroup: 4.1 Masonry units DIN 105 D-click: Vert.perf.lgt.wgt. unit B Main group: Insulation material Subgroup: 5.5 Exp.-Rigid-polystyrene D-click: PS 20-040 Main group: Plaster-Screed-Coat Subgroup: 1.1 Lime-Cement plaster D-click: Lime-cement plaster The materials are given with common thicknesses which can later be changed in the element form. The shortchoice of the material assistant eases the search for desired materials. Choose the main group to search in and enter at least 3 characters of the label/name of the desired material.
Example: Vert.perf.lgt.wgt. unit (type B) 1000 Main group: Masonry Short selection: Ver To finish the design process close the material assistant [X].
You may now adjust the layer thicknesses (or other parameter) in the cross section table.
1) You can also open the material assistant via the context menu which will be shown by clicking the right button of the mouse anywhere in the calculation form.
2) A left-click on the magenta colored numeration of the layers in the cross section table and the corresponding menu choice opens the material assistant as well.
If you create a new cross section this way it is necessary to save the element manually because the system had not had the chance to create a filename for the saving purpose.
The diffusion proof is done in calculation form „Diffusion“. To open the graphics-window click with the left mouse button on the graphic. Clicking on icon-switch ”Settings” in the upper menu you may add the temperature- and va pour pressure development curves to the cross section sketch. With the pull down menu in the upper part of the graphics window you can switch to the shown graphic (e.g. Glaser diagram).
Accession In the table with the diffusion resistances (form diffusion) you will find a column with colored arrows to the left of the sd-values. With a mouse click on it you can vary the used sd-value. According to DIN 4108 the worst value has to be taken: inwards of the insulation layer the smaller and outwards the lar ger diffusion resistance. Although the worst case is not always obvious. If you use the larger sd-value for the vert.perf.lgt.wgt. unit you will get a dew level (border of material layer) instead of a dew field, and so called core condensate (dew leakage inside of a material layer) if you use the larger value for the rigid foam insulation. To correctly calculate the core condensate you need to add “Special calcula tions” in the “Content menu” on the right side.
Design the shown roof construction with a mineral insulation layer, vapour barrier and roof sealing.
Conduct the diffusion proof according to DIN 4108 and display the shown graphics.
Instructions step by step Design the element in the calculation form „Element“ using the icon-switch „New“. Choose element type „roof“, name it „Flat roof A2“ and enter the element layers with the help of the material assistant. After that switch to the calculation form “Diffusion”. Open the graphics window and add the temperature- and vapour pressure develop ment to the cross section sketch of the element. If necessary complete the Glaser diagram with the pd/ps devel opment for the Summer.
Accession In the evaporation period you can, according to DIN 4108, use a temperature of 20°C on the surface of the roof so that you will get a temperature gradient between the surface of the roof and the soffit.
What happens if you instead utilize a temperature of 12°C on the roof surface (inside the room)? How do you explain this special rule?
Make the following changes on the roof construction step by step and control the diffusion calcula
- delete the vapour barrier,
- replace the mineral fibre insulation with an expanded rigid foam (PS) of the same thickness and
- replace the bituminous roof sealing with a highly polymeric PVC sealing.
Instructions You can change the temperature of the roof surface to 12°C in the calculation form „Diffusion“. The change will directly influence the evaporation rate, which is now not sufficient any more. Sealed roofs can, according to Glaser, only be proven with the assumption of an increased temperature of the roof surface during the evapora tion period.
To delete the layers switch back to the „Element“ form and call the material assistant again. Mark the to be de leted material layer in the box on the right side and hit the „del“ key on your keyboard. You can also make use of the material assistant to overwrite / replace layers. To do so mark the to be replaced/overwritten layer, choose a different material and replace the existing marked layer with a double click on the new material.
The earlier compulsory vapour barrier in the design of sealed roofs is now abdicable, if you make use of diffusion repressive insulation layers (rigid foam) and „diffusion open“ roof sealings (plastic).
Examples of application of Building physics Page 9 A.3 Calculation of diffusion for a steep roof Conceptual formulation Please copy the shown cross section „Roof old building“ from the element list. Check the diffusion cal culation. What diffusion resistance has the PE-Foil on the inside to have to keep the construction through calculation free of dew water? Which factors determine the diffusion resistance of the PE-Foil?
The air-layer between the thermal insulation between the rafters and the sealing is said to be “gently ventilated”. What does that mean and how do one create ventilated, gently ventilated and static air lay ers? How do you rate the layer of air between the sealing and the roof cladding?
Why was the diffusion resistance of the gently ventilated sealing used in the calculation? Under what circumstances can it be set to zero?
Instructions step by step To use / copy an element form another project or the element list click in the element form on the icon-switch “Ele ment list”. The element list of your current project will be shown. Switch in the file path on the left into the Dämm werk installation directory (e.g. DW-E). Now you can choose either folder „Elements“ or “Bauteildatenbank” (with elements in German language). You may do it quicker with the icon-switch „Element data base“ in the upper left area of the element list. The folder „Steep roofs“ will be opened by a double click. From the now shown elements you can select (with a mouse click) the “Roof old building”. With the switch copy you will be able to make use of this cross section with a different name „Roof old building A3“. The element is also copied into your current pro ject. You may now change the element according to your likes with the material assistant.
To control the calculation at a glance switch in calculation form “Diffusion” in the „Content Menu“ at right side the Climate caused moisture proofing 4108-3 on (hook). Have a look at the diffusion calculation and the Glaser dia gram. The construction is free of dew water. Change in table diffusion resistances the µmin*s-value of the PEFoil. With sd = 4m the construction will just remain free of dew water. The diffusion resistance of the PE-Foil is de termined by the material thickness, the µ-value and the way of laying. Vapour barrier foils have to have sufficient overlapping and the joints should be glued. Damages are to be avoided, connections to chimneys, walls etc.
should be done with Compri-band and contact bars.