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«James H. Uchiyama Thomas K. Kazama NOAA Fisheries Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Honolulu, Hawaii August 2003 Administrative Report H-03-01 ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Updated Weight-on-Length Relationships

for Pelagic Fishes Caught in the

Central North Pacific Ocean

and Bottomfishes from the

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

James H. Uchiyama

Thomas K. Kazama

NOAA Fisheries

Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center

Honolulu, Hawaii

August 2003

Administrative Report H-03-01

About this report

Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Administrative Reports are issued to

promptly disseminate preliminary data, interim research results, and other

information to marine resource managers, scientists, and the general public.

Administrative Reports typically have not undergone review outside the Center.

As such, they are considered informal publications. The material presented in Administrative Reports may later be published in the formal scientific literature after more rigorous verification, editing, and peer review.

The contents of Administrative Reports may be freely quoted or cited provided their informal nature is clearly indicated and credit is given to the author(s).

Administrative Reports may be cited as follows:

Author. Date. Title. Pacific Islands Fish. Sci. Cent., Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., NOAA, Honolulu, HI 96822-2396. Pacific Islands Fish. Sci. Cent.

Admin. Rep. H-XX-YY, xx p.

__________________________

For further information direct inquiries to Chief, Scientific Information Services Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Department of Commerce 2570 Dole Street Honolulu, Hawaii 96822-2396 Phone: 808-983-5386 Fax: 808-983-2902 Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Administrative Report H-03-01 Updated Weight-on-Length Relationships for Pelagic Fishes Caught in the Central North Pacific Ocean and Bottomfishes from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands James H. Uchiyama and Thomas K. Kazama Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA 2570 Dole Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822-2396 August 2003 PIFSC Administrative Report H-03-01 iii

CONTENTS

Introduction............................................................ 1 Methods............................................................... 2 Results and Discussion.................................................

–  –  –

Table 1.--Comparisons of intercepts and slopes for log-linearized weight-on-length relationships between sexes for members of the families Lutjanidae, Carangidae, and Scombridae.

................................................. 11 Table 2.--Nonlinear fork-length(FL)-on-whole weight (W) and whole weight-on-forklength reationships for snappers and grouper from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands................................................. 12 Table 3.--Nonlinear-whole-weight(W)-on-fork length(FL) and fork length-on-wholeweight relationships for a grouper, carangids, a labrid, and a scorpaenid from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.................................. 13 Table 4.--Nonlinear whole-weight(W)-on-fork length(FL) and fork length-on-wholeweight relationships for tunas, billfishes, and bycatch species from the Hawaii area..................................................... 14

–  –  –

Figure 11.--Weight-on-length relationship for o$opu kai nohu, Pontinus macrocephalus, from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

.............................. 25 Figure 12.--Weight-on-length relationship for purple snake mackerel, Promethichthys prometheus, from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.................... 26 Figure 13.--Weight-on-length relationship for kawakawa, Euthynnus affinis, from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands...................................... 27 Figure 14.--Weight-on-length relationship for aku, Katsuwonus pelamis, from the central North Pacific Ocean......................................... 28 Figure 15.--Weight-on-length relationship for albacore, Thunnus alalunga, from the eastern and central North Pacific Ocean............................... 29 Figure 16.--Weight-on-length relationship for ahi, Thunnus albacares, from the central North Pacific Ocean......................................... 30 Figure 17.--Weight-on-length relationship for bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, from the central North Pacific Ocean......................................... 31 Figure 18.--Weight-on-length relationship for Pacific blue marlin, Makaira mazara, from the equatorial and central North Pacific Ocean...................... 32 Figure 19.--Weight-on-length relationship for striped marlin, Tetrapturus audax, from the central North Pacific Ocean................................. 33 Figure 20.--Weight-on-length relationship for longnose lancetfish, Alepisaurus ferox, from the central North Pacific Ocean................................. 34

–  –  –





Appendix Figure 1.--Weight-on-length relationship for sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, measured at the Honolulu fish auctions, 1967-70...................... A-2 Appendix Figure 2.--Weight-on-length relationship for black marlin, Makaira indica, measured at the Honolulu fish auctions, 1967-70...................... A-3 Appendix Figure 3.--Weight-on-length relationship for Pacific blue marlin, Makaira mazara, measured at the Honolulu fish auctions, 1967-70............... A-4 Appendix Figure 4.--Weight-on-length relationship for short bill spearfish, Tetrapturus angustirostris, measured at the Honolulu fish auctions, 1967-70.......... A-5 Appendix Figure 5.--Weight-on-length relationship for striped marlin, Tetrapturus audax, measured at the Honolulu fish auctions, 1967-70...................... A-6

INTRODUCTION

Models of biomass dynamics used in fish stock assessment typically require the prediction of body weight from some measure of length. As the focus of fishery management broadens to include a wider range of species in marine ecosystems1 there is a growing need to develop weight-on-length (WL) predictors not only for the main fish species caught but also for species caught incidentally. Using fish weight and length data collected during research cruises of the NOAA Ship Townsend Cromwell (TC) during the last 25 years, and other sources, we estimated WL relationships for 12 pelagic species caught in eastern and central North Pacific fisheries and 12 bottomfish species from the

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). The species studied include:

–  –  –

A few of these species occur in the bycatch (discards) of commercial fisheries, and the predictors we present provide the first published WL relationships for them from this area. In the other cases, the predictors provide alternatives or updates to relationships already available in the literature. Publications of WL relationships of pelagic species in Hawaiian waters are limited. Relationships of commercially fished tunas (skipjack tuna, National Marine Fisheries Service and Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel.

1999. Ecosystem-based Fishery Management. A report to congress by the Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel as mandated by the Sustainable Fisheries Act amendments to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1996, NMFS, Washington, D.C. 54 p. Online at http://www.nmfs.gov/sfa/EPAPrpt.pdf PIFSC Administrative Report H-03-01 2 yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna, and albacore) are available in a report by Nakamura and Uchiyama (1966). The relationships are based on thousands of fish measurements and cover the wide size range of these species, but error estimates are not provided. Weighton-fork length (WFL) relationships are presented for seven billfishes (swordfish included) in the report by Skillman and Yong (1974) and in a later publication that provided functional (WFL) for the striped marlin and the Pacific blue marlin (Skillman and Yong, 1976). Skillman and Yong (1974, 1976) did not use eye-to-fork length (EFL), which most studies on Pacific billfishes use, and sample sizes for some species were very small. Wilson et al. (1991) provided weight-on-lower jaw fork length relationship for Pacific blue marlin collected primarily at Kona, Hawaii. Tester and Nakamura (1957) calculated WL relationships for several of the miscellaneous pelagic species such as kawakawa; mahimahi, Coryphaena hippurus; and wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri. Size ranges were limited to small fish, and no error estimates were provided. More recent studies on swordfish, Xiphias gladius (Uchiyama et al., 1999), and mahimahi and wahoo (in prep)2 utilized extensive data collected at the Honolulu fish auction and on research cruises. The latter reports examined effect of sex and month on WL relationships and provided model and parameter error estimates for swordfish, mahimahi, and wahoo.

Therefore, analyses for the latter species will not be duplicated here.

Publications on WL predictors of bottomfishes are also limited. Ralston presented a WL relationship for #opakapaka in his Ph.D. dissertation (1981). WL relationships of snappers, grouper, and jacks caught by handline in the NWHI on the NOAA ship TC during 1977-82 were presented at the Second Symposium on Resource Investigations in the NWHI in 1983 (Uchiyama et al., 1984). DeMartini and Lau (1999) presented (ovary-free body) WL relationships for ehu and kalekale in their study to find a more cost-effective way to determine sexual maturity. In the life history and ecology study of large jacks, Sudekum et al. (1991) provided equations for weight-on-standard length relationships as well as various length-length relationships to convert other length measurements to standard-length for white ulua, Caranx ignobilis, and #omilu, C.

melampygus, from the NWHI. Sudekum et al. (1991) can be consulted for WL relationships of white ulua and #omilu and will not be repeated here.

In addition to estimating WL predictors, the effect of sex on the WL relationship was examined for species with adequate sample size. Separate relationships are presented for each sex when WL parameters differed significantly between sexes; in these cases, predictors for pooled sexes are also provided for use when sex is unknown. Both WL and length-on-weight (LW) relationships were characterized to provide a comprehensive reference source. Standard errors were provided for the predictor models and model parameters.

–  –  –

Length, weight, and sex data were obtained for fish caught on research cruises on the ship TC from June 1977 through September 2002. Lengths were measured in millimeters using a meter or a 2-m-long fish caliper. Fish were measured for fork length (FL), except for billfishes where EFL was used and total length (TL) for certain demersal species that have rounded or truncated tails. From 1977 to 1992 whole weight up to 25 kg was usually measured on a Maco3 beam platform balance scale. An electronic platform scale (Electronic Platform Scales FG60K (60 ±0.02 kg) replaced the Maco beam balance in 1992. Large fish were weighed using a steelyard prior to 1992; fish were weighed to the nearest whole pound. From 1992, an electronic crane scale (Challenger MSI-3260) with a capacity up to 225 (±0.1) kg was used for large fish and occasionally, a 25-kg or a 10-kg-capacity spring scale was used in the field. Honolulu Laboratory’s data sets FISH SAMPLING LOG (RI003), STANDARDIZED TROLLING DATA (RP002), and SIZE FREQUENCY LOG (RI016) were our data sources. Only length-weight-sex data of pelagic species caught in the North Equatorial Current (NEC) (east of the international date line) and bottomfishes caught and surveyed in the NWHI and main Hawaiian Islands were extracted from the data base. All relationships were fitted using centimeters (cm) and kilograms (kg); therefore, pounds (steelyard and other data) and grams (old data format) were converted to kg and millimeters to cm. A multiplicative relation of WL was performed for all species, and observations with Studentized residual values of $3 were considered outliers and were not used in the WL characterization. These data appeared to consist of measurement or recording errors. An outlier limit of $3 Studentized residual is conservative; any of the species examined in this report, at peak condition with a fully developed gonad ready to spawn and with a full stomach, would not have deviated as much from the predicted mean size. All statistical analyses were performed using Statgraphics Plus Professional version 5 (Manugistics, 2000).

We supplemented our data for albacore and Pacific blue marlin from other sources to increase both number and size range. Length-weight data of smaller albacore were obtained from recaptured tagged fish from the eastern North Pacific Ocean including Hawaii and were added to our data to increase the size range. These small albacore had previously been frozen, thawed, and weighed on a triple beam scale on land; fork length was measured using a fish caliper.4 Since only a single stock-unit of albacore tuna is believed to exist in the North Pacific (Nakano, 1996) and some of the small albacore tagged in the eastern North Pacific Ocean were recaptured in Hawaii, supplementing our The National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA Fisheries does not approve, recommend, or endorse any proprietary products or proprietary material mentioned in this report.

Robert Nishimoto, Fishery Biologist, Honolulu Laboratory, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2570 Dole Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822-2396.



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