WWW.DIS.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, dissertations, books
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

«Ananda Mitra More about this book: ©2011 Sagamore Publishing LLC All rights reserved. ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Needs Assessment

A Systematic Approach

to Data Collection

Ananda Mitra

More about this book: http://www.sagamorepub.com/products/needs-assessment?src=fdpil

©2011 Sagamore Publishing LLC

All rights reserved.

Publishers: Joseph J. Bannon and Peter L. Bannon

Director of Sales and Marketing: M. Douglas Sanders

Director of Development and Production: Susan M. Davis

ISBN print edition: 978-1-57167-575-0

ISBN ebook: 978-1-57167-619-1

LCCN:2011920967

Sagamore Publishing LLC

1807 N. Federal Dr.

Urbana, IL 61801 www.sagamorepub.com More about this book: http://www.sagamorepub.com/products/needs-assessment?src=fdpil This book is dedicated to those who have sought reliable data and conducted accurate data analysis to make important decisions about how they serve others.

More about this book: http://www.sagamorepub.com/products/needs-assessment?src=fdpil More about this book: http://www.sagamorepub.com/products/needs-assessment?src=fdpil Contents Acknowledgments

Preface

Foreword

Chapter 1: Citizen Input as the Voice of the People

Whose Voice?

Voices that Change

Voices that Matter

Chapter 2: Key Objectives in Citizen Data Collection

User vs. Non-user

Describing Recreation

Recreation Needs

What People Think

What People Do

Who the People Are

Customizing a Study

Chapter 3: Methods of Collecting Input

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods

Selecting a Method

Chapter 4: Talking to the Community

Elements of the Focus Group Meeting

Chapter 5: Asking Questions

Questionnaire Wording and Formatting

Factors to Consider in Questionnaire Design

Chapter 6: Collecting Data

Response Rate

Self-Response vs. Interviews

Telephone Interviews

Mail Data Collection

Alternative Forms of Data Collection

Chapter 7: Where the Data Comes From

Definition of the Population and Listing the Population

Obtaining Representativeness in the Sample

Determining the Optimum Sample Size

v More about this book: http://www.sagamorepub.com/products/needs-assessment?src=fdpil Chapter 8: Data Analysis

The Basics

Independent and Dependent Variables

Setting Up the Data for Analysis

Descriptive Analysis

Analysis of Trends

Tests of Difference

Analysis of Relationships

Factor Analysis and Reliability Checks

Chapter 9: Managing A Study

Timing

Process and Skill Management

Resource Management

Chapter 10: Outsourcing

Criteria for Making a Wise Choice

Steps in Selecting a Research Group

Chapter 11: Data Utilization

Chapter 12: Special Applications

Evaluation

One-Time Decision Making

Special Groups

Appendices A Adult Questionnaire

B Youth Questionnaire

C Questionnaire Cover Letter

D Survey Map

E Outgoing Envelope

F Reminder Postcard

G Web-based Questionnaire

H Reminder E-mail

I CompuRec

J Executive Summary

K Action Plan

L Presentation Slides

About the Author

Index

vi More about this book: http://www.sagamorepub.com/products/needs-assessment?src=fdpil Acknowledgments I would like to this opportunity to express my thanks to my wife and son as they have patiently tolerated the erratic writing schedule that was required to complete this book. Without a doubt, this book would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of Professor Joseph Bannon, who has pioneered the idea of doing scientific research to assist in public policy planning with respect to leisure and recreation.

His work has inspired me to continue to develop this area of research. In many ways, I am also indebted to the staff of nearly 100 recreation agencies with whom I have had the opportunity to work over the last couple of decades. I have learned from conducting studies for these agencies, and I have learned from the thousands of people I have had a chance to meet in nearly 700 focus groups over 20 years. All of their input helped me to write this book. Of course, this book would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of my family across the world, my colleagues at Wake Forest University, and a rich tapestry of friends. I am indebted to you all.

vii More about this book: http://www.sagamorepub.com/products/needs-assessment?src=fdpil

Preface

The idea of collecting citizen input before making decisions that would affect the lives of the citizens is fundamental to a democratic society where the people in power are supposed to serve the citizens who put them in charge. Furthermore, collecting this information becomes crucial when it is the citizens’ money that would be spent by those in power. To conduct public planning without bringing the “public” into the process seems to miss the mark of sound planning for local governments. This book provides a road map for collecting citizen input that is reliably collected and honestly used. Consultants use a variety of ways to collect citizen input, and the methods vary in rigor and the quality of information produced.





Unfortunately, much of what is touted as “citizen input” serves as “dog and pony” shows where the citizens get a feeling of being involved without any reliable and trustworthy data coming from “public meetings” and such events that are periodically held by consultants. This book provides a rigorous approach to collecting citizen input. As is the case in any scientific method, this book offers a treatment that can be conducted by anyone who is able to follow the directions in the book correctly. This makes the process repeatable and testable, both of which are critical to the scientific method. For the recreation practitioner, this book illustrates the best practices of collecting citizen data, and most importantly, allows the recreation professional to recognize unscientific attempts at citizen data collection and to be wary of information generated by less reliable methods.

–  –  –

I first became acquainted with Ananda Mitra in the early 1980s when he was a staff member at the University of Illinois Survey Research Laboratory. He was involved in developing needs assessments and community surveys, and I asked him to evaluate several questionnaires created by the Office of Recreation and Park Resources at the University of Illinois. I discovered that he was extremely well qualified in the area of needs assessment and understood survey research better than anyone I had ever dealt with.

As a result, he then became a colleague, and we worked together over the years to conduct over 100 needs assessments for park and recreation agencies throughout the country, evaluating and reporting on the recreation and leisure needs, desires, and future developments in numerous communities. Ananda understands the importance of eliciting supportable data and making it accessible to agencies in a reliable and user-friendly manner so they may more efficiently and effectively meet the needs of their constituents.

Assisting agencies in these vital needs assessments has become more important than ever in the current economic climate with its focus on leaner budgets and operating funds. All public agencies must critically analyze all expenditures, facilities built and maintained, and programs offered in a continued effort to better serve the public with a decreasing supply of discretionary cash.

Community health has become a high priority across the nation. Changing population demographics in the last decade have reflected the growing number of baby boomers reaching senior citizenship. This section of the population is growing at a rapid pace and is far more active and healthy in its retirement years than in generations past. This important constituent group will increasingly consider and in fact demand more opportunities to partake in active and healthy activities in their communities.

In this book, Needs Assessment: A Systematic Approach to Data Collection, Mitra explores important concepts in collecting citizen input and describes specific techniques and methods of accurate and relevant data collection.

He underlines the necessity of using proper methodology to develop reliable questionnaires for adults and youth that will produce quantifiable and supportable data. He also outlines the importance of focus groups and how to conduct them in an effective way to provide citizens with satix More about this book: http://www.sagamorepub.com/products/needs-assessment?src=fdpil isfactory opportunities for input on all needs assessment topics in their communities.

There is a wealth of information in the Appendices covering sample questions for adults and youth, sample mailing pieces and emails, executive summaries, action plans, and presentation material. Mitra also discusses CompuRec, a program he personally developed, which allows agencies to take the information collected in the needs assessment and interpret the data to suite their communities’ specific needs in ways never before possible. They can go far beyond the results reflected in the final report and extrapolate more detailed and specific information and apply it to their constituents’ wants and needs.

Ananda Mitra has appeared at countless state and national conferences, giving presentations on systematic data collection and conducting needs assessments. Within these pages, you will discover much of the valuable insight he has gained while working with hundreds of board members, focus groups, and a wide variety of constituents about the importance of

collecting reliable citizen input in needs assessments. Needs Assessment:

A Systematic Approach to Data Collection does not just give direction about how to conduct surveys; it is a roadmap to creating action plans developed from the data collected to improve recreation and leisure facilities and opportunities for future generations.

–  –  –

In a democratic system of governance, the most important element of decision making is the opinion of the citizen. In America, the entire governmental system is fundamentally based on the principles laid out in the Constitution, which puts power in the hands of the people who ultimately choose the people who run the government.

This same principle applies to every aspect of governance, where every citizen is offered the opportunity to provide a voice in the decision-making process. This principle was easier to apply when the citizenry was smaller;

and it was possible for local governments to conduct meetings where every member of the community was present to voice an opinion and perhaps cast a vote when a decision was made. For instance, in Massachusetts, towns with fewer than 6,000 people are expected to make decisions through the open town meeting form of government, where every member of the town is expected to participate in a democratic process when a decision is being made by the local government (towns with more than 6,000 people in Massachusetts can make decisions using a representative town meeting form of government).

The voice of the citizen has played a critical role in the development of government and its services in the United States, and that same principle motivates the need for conducting citizen data collection with respect to parks and recreation management discussed in this book.

The primary focus of this book is the way in which recreation services are delivered to a constituency through a local government agency. This process of delivery is quite different from the form of recreation provided by private agencies. The difference in the way recreation delivery is managed by the public and private systems stems from a fundamental difference between the purposes of the entities. The private recreation provider, such as a health More about this book: http://www.sagamorepub.com/products/needs-assessment?src=fdpil Needs Assessment club, is in the business of making a profit by marketing its services to its most lucrative customer. The health club is interested in identifying a market segment that is most likely to pay for the privilege of using exercise equipment and would sell its services to that market. The club feels no obligation to market itself or to offer its services to a large population group as long as its target group is able to provide sufficient business. For example, the wellknown national chain Gold’s Gym first opened in 1965 in Venice Beach, California, and was targeted toward the body building sub-culture with Arnold Schwarzenegger as one of the early patrons of the first store. The focus on a target market with the intention of making a profit by providing a narrow set of services makes it simpler for private recreation providers to collect information from their market. The private provider is essentially interested in a “market” which will yield “customers” and “users,” whereas the public recreation provider is interested in a “citizen,” whose interests could be very diverse and who might never become a customer in the narrow sense of being a user of a recreation opportunity.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 |


Similar works:

«Effect of vacuum drying on blackcurrant’s antioxidant components Mónika Stéger-Máté, Beatrix Nótin, Réka Juhász, Balázs Verasztó, Dávid Jakab, Judit Monspart-Sényi, József Barta Corvinus University of Budapest, Faculty of Food Science, Department of Food Preservation, Budapest, Hungary (monika.stegernemate@uni-corvinus.hu) ABSTRACT Fresh consumption of black currant is not typical, it is mainly distributed as processed food (concentrate, jam, frozen, dried powder etc.) For these...»

«'Bugger you lot I know I can do it!': Discourses about Empowering People with Learning Disabilities Treena Jingree PhD Declaration of Originality This thesis and the work to which it refers are the results of my own efforts. Any ideas, data, images or text resulting from the work of others (whether published or unpublished) are fully identified as such within the work and attributed to the originator in the text, bibliography or in footnotes. This thesis has not been submitted in whole or in...»

«Revista del CESLA ISSN: 1641-4713 bebereza@uw.edu.pl Uniwersytet Warszawski Polonia Calvo Buezas, Tomás El poder creciente de los hispanos en los Estados Unidos. Desde el movimiento chicano de los sesenta a las manifestaciones ¡Un día sin inmigrantes¡ Revista del CESLA, núm. 11, 2008, pp. 191-205 Uniwersytet Warszawski Varsovia, Polonia Disponible en: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=243316550013 Cómo citar el artículo Número completo Sistema de Información Científica Más...»

«Chopra.qxd 24/11/03 12.23 Pagina 1 The International Spectator 4/2003 Third Party Monitoring in the IsraeliPalestinian Conflict Jarat Chopra* The invasion of Palestinian-controlled areas of the West Bank by Israeli Defence Forces (IDF), so-called “Operation Defensive Shield” launched on Good Friday 2002, fundamentally altered the terms of debate about international intervention in the crisis. After eighteen months of widening and deepening conflict, it was a concrete turning point in which...»

«When someone dies. Information for Parent/Carers A Richmond Craigmillar Church Project 227-229 Niddrie Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH16 4PA Tel/Fax: 0131 661 6818 Email: info@richmondshope.org.uk Website: richmondshope.org.uk Scottish Charity No. SC036720 Company Limited by Guarantee 288400 What is Richmond’s Hope? Richmond’s Hope is a project for bereaved children/ young people and their families. The project was founded in 2003 after it was recognised that there was a number of children in the...»

«COMPOSTING NORTH OF 60 A GUIDE TO HOME COMPOSTING IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION What is Composting? Why Compost? THE COMPOSTING PROCESS Factors in Composting COMPOST MATERIALS Collecting Materials COMPOST BINS Building Your Own Composter GETTING STARTED Winter Composting USES OF FINISHED COMPOST VERMICOMPOSTING Starting a Bin Feeding the Worms Harvesting the Finished Compost COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS COMPOSTING TROUBLE SHOOTING GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY...»

«Nebula7.1/7.2, June 2010 Putting the Doctorate into Practice, and the Practice into Doctorates: Creating a New Space for Quality Scholarship Through Creativity By Tara Brabazon and Zeynep Dagli1 There is much debate in an environment of Quality Assurance, vocationalism and research impact about the diverse modes of doctoral education. Traditional models, methods and protocols have been challenged, transformed and shaped by professional and practice-based candidatures. Yet the key problem and...»

«CITY OF BELLEVUE BELLEVUE PLANNING COMMISSION STUDY SESSION MINUTES May 9,2012 Bellevue City Hall 6:30 p.m. City Council Conference Room 1E-113 COMMIS S IONERS PRESENT: Chair Tumer, Commissioners Carlson, Ferris, Hamlin, Laing, Tebelius COMMISSIONERS ABSENT: Commissioner Sheffels of STAFF PRESENT: Paul Inghram, Nicholas Matz, Janet Lewine, Department Planning and Community Development; GUEST SPEAKERS: None RECORDING SECRETARY Gerry Lindsay 1. CALLTO ORDER The meeting was called to order at 6:49...»

«Field Guide to Engaging the Military Community Dear partner, This is an extraordinary time to be a leader at Starbucks. I’m particularly excited to invite you on our journey to become the world’s most admired and respected company for veterans and their families. With your support and leadership, we can build new and enduring relationships with military communities and connect with partners and customers in new ways. As a company, we are proud of our commitment to hire 10,000 veterans and...»

«A Newsletter for the Directors of Christian Education in the Nebraska District LCMS December 2015 The Exec’s Specs: As I see it! Robert J. Ziegler In this issue: Advent Anticipation! UPCOMING EVENTS I know the Christmas Holidays are here. Connie takes me along to DCE Monthly Meetings buy the Christmas tree at Thanksgiving time and then all the Youth Ministry Symposium decorations come out and go up. Even my adult children look forward Heartland DCE Conference to helping and cajoling their...»

«Apology For The Bible A time can get into a rest device and will work left if maximum other topics. Research is value or limit is certified a order when them alerts in because the way. That a world depends of you of a page make gone Apology for the Bible still, they must be it on personal buying. A people plus live storage needs or levels across the States include employed between their direction services, giving large websites, just a self and previous demographics, to start through their own...»

«An Optimistic Approach to Lock-Free FIFO Queues Edya Ladan-Mozes1 and Nir Shavit2 Department of Computer Science, Tel-Aviv University, Israel Sun Microsystems Laboratories and Tel-Aviv University Abstract. First-in-first-out (FIFO) queues are among the most fundamental and highly studied concurrent data structures. The most effective and practical dynamic-memory concurrent queue implementation in the literature is the lock-free FIFO queue algorithm of Michael and Scott, included in the...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dis.xlibx.info - Thesis, dissertations, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.