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The Child Development Supplement
The Institute for Social Research
426 Thompson Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48106
The Panel Study of Income Dynamics
Child Development Supplement
User Guide for CDS-II
July 30, 2010
[This page intentionally left blank]
The Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was made possible
by the generous funding of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Science Foundation, and the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University. CDS-I received additional support from the William T. Grant Foundation, the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the U.S. Department of Education. The CDS project is based at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. Frank Stafford is the Principal Investigator of the CDS.
Jacquelynne Eccles, Robert Schoeni, Wei-Jean Yeung, and Katherine McGonagle are Co-Principal Investigators of the CDS. Tina Mainieri was responsible for the day-to-day management of the CDS-II as Project Manager and wrote much of this user guide. Zoanne Blackburn had primary responsibility for all aspects of data collection of the CDS-II. Special thanks go to the CDS Advisory Board and Sandra Simpkins Chaput and Elizabeth Vandewater who provided guidance and invaluable input on CDS-II instrument development, and Mary Dascola, Brian Haggerty, Malgorzata Grodsky, and Brian Madden who made important contributions to the implementation of this project.
List of CDS-II User Guide Revisions/Additions 7/30/10 – Added Media Guide Documentation Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 – AN INTRODUCTION TO THE CDS
CHAPTER 2 – OVERVIEW OF THE CDSII MODULES
PRIMARY CAREGIVER CHILD INTERVIEW
PRIMARY CAREGIVER HOUSEHOLD INTERVIEW
OTHER CAREGIVER CHILD AND HOUSEHOLD INTERVIEWS
LOOKING FORWARD: FOLLOWING THE FULL CDS SAMPLE INTO ADOLESCENCE AND YOUNG ADULTHOOD.....7CHAPTER 3 – THE CDS SAMPLE
THE INITIAL 1997 SAMPLE: CDS-I
RE-INTERVIEW SAMPLE IN 2002: CDS-II
DATA COLLECTION OUTCOMES FOR THE INDIVIDUAL MODULES
SUMMARY: RESPONSE RATE ACROSS WAVES
CHAPTER 4 – THE CDSII SAMPLE WEIGHT
PART 2: CHANGES IN THE CDS SAMPLE BETWEEN 1997 AND 2002/2003
CHAPTER 5 – DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES
CHAPTER 6 – PRIMARY CAREGIVER INTERVIEWS: TOPICAL GUIDE
BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS INDEX
THE POSITIVE BEHAVIORS SCALE
SAMPLE CHILD’S EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
CHILD-SPECIFIC EXPENDITURES AND SAVINGS
ROSENBERG SELF-ESTEEM FOR PRIMARY CAREGIVERS
PEARLIN SELF-EFFICACY SCALE FOR PRIMARY CAREGIVERS
MEASURE OF NON-SPECIFIC PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS FOR PRIMARY CAREGIVERS
PARENTING ATTITUDES, STYLES, AND BELIEFS
CHAPTER 7 – CHILD INTERVIEW: TOPICAL GUIDE
INTERVIEW CONTENT FOR ALL PARTICIPATING CHILDREN 8 YEARS AND OLDER
INTERVIEW CONTENT FOR PARTICIPATING YOUTH 10 YEARS AND OLDER
INTERVIEW CONTENT FOR PARTICIPATING YOUTH 12 YEARS AND OLDER
CHAPTER 8 ASSESSMENTS
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT MEASURES
WOODCOCK JOHNSON TESTS OF ACHIEVEMENT
WISC DIGIT SPAN TEST FOR SHORT TERM MEMORY
CHAPTER 9 – TIME DIARIES
CHAPTER 10 – CDSII SCHOOL DATA
CHAPTER 11 CODED VARIABLES IN THE PCG AND CHILD INTERVIEWS
OCCUPATION & INDUSTRY FOR YOUTH’S JOBS
CODE FRAMES FOR OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS
PCG CHILD INTERVIEW
CHAPTER 12 – PSID DATA RESOURCES
THE PSID SAMPLE
FAMILY AND INDIVIDUAL LEVEL VARIABLES IN THE PSID
THE BUILDING BLOCKS TO USING PSID DATA ON FAMILIES & INDIVIDUALS
FAMILY COMPOSITION CHANGE
PSID DATA CENTER FILES
PSID SUPPLEMENTAL FILES
CHAPTER 13– DATA FILE STRUCTURE WITHIN CDS FILES
CHAPTER 14 – USING THE DATA CENTER AND MERGING FILES
USING THE DATA CENTER: THE BASICS
LINKING DATA FILES
CHAPTER 15 – A FEW TIPS ON USING THE PSIDCDS DATA RESOURCES
APPENDIX A: MEASUREMENT RESOURCE TABLE FOR CDS MODULES
APPENDIX B: HOME SCALE MAPPING TO NLSY AND PHDCN
APPENDIX C: HOME SCALE RECODING INSTRUCTIONS
APPENDIX D: CDSII DATA GROUPINGS
APPENDIX E: DOCUMENTATION FOR CDS MEDIA FILES……………………………………………….33
Chapter 1 – An Introduction to the CDSThe Child Development Supplement (CDS) is one research component of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. individuals and the families in which they reside. Since 1968, the PSID has collected data on family composition changes, housing and food expenditures, marriage and fertility histories, employment, income, time spent in housework, health, consumption, wealth, and more.
While the PSID has always collected some information about children (see the PSID bibliography for research papers on child development ) in 1997, PSID supplemented its main data collection with additional data on 0-12 year-old children and their parents. The goal of this new data collection was to improve our understanding of the socio-demographic, psychological, and economic aspects of childhood from a nationally representative longitudinal perspective. The CDS-I successfully completed interviews with 2,394 families (88%), providing information on 3,563 children. In 2002-2003, CDS re-contacted families in CDS-I who remained active in the PSID panel as of 2001. CDS-II successfully re-interviewed 2,019 families (91%) who provided data on 2,907 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years. In 2005, the CDS piloted a specialized interview for cohort members transitioning into adulthood, aged 18 years and older.
The CDS gathers a broad array of measures on developmental outcomes across the domains of health, psychological well-being, social relationships, cognitive development, achievement motivation, and education as well as a number of measures of the family, neighborhood, and school environments in which the sample members live and learn. The breadth and depth of measurement offers a substantially rich resource to study development of children and teens alike from infancy/early childhood through middle childhood and adolescence.
In addition to the survey measures described above, the CDS collects time diaries from the sample children 3-18 years of age. These diaries provide a basic foundation for understanding how children across ages, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic status engage in a range of activities and social circumstances. They additionally offer an excellent opportunity to investigate research questions that examine relationships among time spent in various activities, aspects of the family environment, and outcomes related to achievement, social and behavioral development, and health. The time diaries provide By nature of the CDS being a supplement to the PSID, the study takes advantage of an extensive amount of family demographic and economic data about the sample children’s family—not only parents, but also grandparents, siblings, cousins, and other relatives—providing more extensive family data than any other nationally-representative longitudinal survey of children and youth in the U.S. This rich data structure allows analysts a unique opportunity to fully link information on children, their parents, their grandparents, and other relatives to take advantage of the intergenerational and long-panel dimensions of the data.
Through a separate biennial interview, data are further collected on sample members during their early years of transitioning into adulthood, and in the main PSID when they leave home and become heads of their own households. The extensive information collected on experiences during childhood and adolescence can then be used to help explain patterns of adult life experiences and development. Truly, the multi-level, multidisciplinary, and longitudinal nature of the combined PSID-CDS research design make the CDS an important and very unique resource to the research community.
URL: http://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/Publications/Bibliography CDS-II User Guide Page 1 The goal of this User Guide is to provide you with detailed information about the overall CDS study design, specific measures, data structure and relationships with the “parent study” – the PSID. More specifically, the next chapter, Chapter 2, introduces the CDS-II data collection modules and their relationship to the CDS-I modules. Chapter 3 describes the CDS-II sample and data collection response rates. Chapter 4 follows with documentation on the sample weight and related issues. Chapter 5 provides highlights of the data collection efforts, and Chapters 6-10 detail the goals and measures in each of the modules – Primary Caregiver, Child, Assessments, Time Diaries, and External School modules, respectively. Chapter 11 briefly lists the variables that were coded in the CDS-II. Chapter 12 is an important chapter for CDS data users to review. This chapter provides information about the rich data resources in the PSID main and supplemental files, the data structure within the PSID, and fundamental aspects of its data structure as they relate to the CDS respondents. In Chapters 13-15, we continue with more information on data structure and linking within the various data groups in the PSID-CDS Data Center.
Page 2 Chapter 2 – Overview of the CDSII Modules
Both waves of the CDS collect measures of developmental outcomes in the areas of health, achievement, and psychosocial wellbeing, and measures of inputs into development within the context of the child’s family, neighborhood, and school. Due to the panel nature of the study, most measures in the second wave duplicated those assessed in the baseline to permit analysis of change over time. The CDS-I User Guide (Hofferth et al., 19992) provides an overview of the initial wave and its measures. Changes in the type and content of the instruments at the second wave largely reflected measurement needs related to changes in the developmental stages of the children across the data collections. In CDS-I, almost all of the participating children were 0-12 years of age, with a good number not yet in school. The interviews focused on developmental issues appropriate to the infant, early childhood, and middle childhood stages and emphasized contacts with caregivers and preschool /elementary school teachers. In CDS-II, almost one-half of the CDS sample was in adolescence. We added substantially more youth-reported measures, new adolescent-appropriate scales, such as the Adolescent HOME Short-Form Scale, and more psychological and educational scales. Additionally, we expanded the interview with the children themselves, and incorporated many of the new question items in an Audio-Computer Assisted SelfInterview (ACASI) whereby adolescents listened to the questions through a headset and recorded their responses directly into the laptop. This method has been shown to improve data quality for reports of sensitive information such as questions about psychological well-being, sexual behaviors, and experiences with tobacco, alcohol, and drug use (Aquilino, 1994)3.
The CDS-II data are collected from multiple individuals using varied methodology, but all with a focus
on the sample child and his/her social and physical environment. The CDS interviewers are, as follows:
(1) Primary Caregiver Interview that focused on the child and household characteristics; (2) Child Interview for children aged 8 years and older, including an Audio-Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) component for sensitive topics asked of adolescents; (3) Standardized Educational Achievement Assessments for all children using the Woodcock Johnson and WISC Digit Span Test; (4) Time Diary for weekday and weekend accounts of use of children’s time filled out by either the child alone or the child in collaboration with the mother; (5) Other Caregiver Questionnaire that focuses on the child and household characteristics; (6) Elementary/Middle School Teacher questionnaire, that focuses on the child’s behavior and achievement at school, characteristics of the classroom and the school, in general, and characteristics of the teacher; (7) Course and Grade Reports of adolescents as one measure of academic choices and achievement patterns (8) External School Database to gather information about the school and school district environments. Table 2 below provides a summary of the content of the CDS modules. In this chapter, we review the modules included in the second wave. Chapters 6-10 provide more detail about the specific measures within each module, and Chapter 12 provides details on measures collected in the PSID main family interview.
Hofferth, S., Davis-Kean, P.E., Davis, J., & Finkelstein, J. (1999). The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics: 1997 User Guide. http://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/CDS/usergd.html.
Aquilino, W. S., (1994) Interview mode effects in surveys of drug and alcohol use: a field experiment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 58, 210-240.
Health Status & General health status, chronic conditions, obesity, limitations, PCG Behaviors* health care utilization, health-related expenditures, nutrition, Child exercise, sleep, smoking Psychological & Behavior problems, depression, self-esteem, worry, social well- PCG Social Well-Being* being; risky behaviors, thrill seeking, anti-social behaviors; Child drug and alcohol abuse /dependence
Religiosity* Comfort, importance of religious affiliation or spirituality Child Future Work & Achieved occupational certainty and identity; job values, career Child Schooling orientation and expectations for future work and schooling;