FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, dissertations, books

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 16 |

«Freely extracted from the NHS National Library for Health at by Géraud Servin Creator: NHS National ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

ABC of Knowledge Management

Freely extracted from the NHS National Library for Health at http://www.library.nhs.uk/knowledgemanagement/

by Géraud Servin

Creator: NHS National Library for Health: Knowledge Management Specialist Library

Contributor: Caroline De Brún

Publication Date: July 2005

Table of Contents


1.1 What is knowledge management?

1.2 What is knowledge?

1.3 Why do we need knowledge management?

1.4 What does knowledge management involve?

1.5 Some “textbook” definitions of knowledge management


2.1 Right knowledge, right place, right time

2.2 Types of knowledge: explicit and tacit

2.3 Types of knowledge: old and new

2.4 Ways with knowledge: collecting and connecting

2.5 Ways with knowledge: people, processes and technology


3.1 A brief history of knowledge management

3.2 The “knowledge economy”

3.3 Knowledge management in the public sector


4.2 KM toolbox – inventory of tools and techniques

4.3 After Action Reviews

4.4 Communities of Practice

4.5 Conducting a knowledge audit

4.6 Developing a knowledge management strategy

4.7 Exit interviews

4.8 Identifying and sharing best practices

4.9 Knowledge centres

4.10 Knowledge harvesting

4.11 Peer assists

4.12 Social Network Analysis

4.13 Storytelling

4.14 White Pages


5.1 People

5.2 KM Processes

5.3 KM Technology


6.1 Why measure?

6.2 What to measure? Common measurement approaches

6.3 How to measure?


1 What is knowledge management?


Knowledge management is based on the idea that an organisation’s most valuable resource is the knowledge of its people. Therefore, the extent to which an organisation performs well, will depend, among other things, on how effectively its people can create new knowledge, share knowledge around the organisation, and use that knowledge to best effect.

If you have read any of the huge array of knowledge management books and articles that are currently available, you are possibly feeling slightly bewildered. Perhaps you are wondering whether knowledge management is just the latest fad and hoping that if you ignore it, it will eventually go away. Let’s be honest – knowledge management is surrounded by a great deal of hype. But if you can put the hype to one side, you will find that many of the tools, techniques and processes of knowledge management actually make a great deal of common sense, are already part of what you do, and can greatly help you in your job.

1.1 What is knowledge management?

Many of us simply do not think in terms of managing knowledge, but we all do it. Each of us is a personal store of knowledge with training, experiences, and informal networks of friends and colleagues, whom we seek out when we want to solve a problem or explore an opportunity. Essentially, we get things done and succeed by knowing an answer or knowing someone who does.

Fundamentally, knowledge management is about applying the collective knowledge of the entire workforce to achieve specific organisational goals. The aim of knowledge management is not necessarily to manage all knowledge, just the knowledge that is most important to the organisation. It is about ensuring that people have the knowledge they need, where they need it, when they need it – the right knowledge, in the right place, at the right time.

Knowledge management is unfortunately a misleading term – knowledge resides in people’s heads and managing it is not really possible or desirable. What we can do, and what the ideas behind knowledge management are all about, is to establish an environment in which people are encouraged to create, learn, share, and use knowledge together for the benefit of the organisation, the people who work in it, and the organisation’s customers (or in the case of the NHS, patients).

1.2 What is knowledge?

Academics have debated the meaning of “knowledge” since the word was invented, but let’s not get into that here. A dictionary definition is “the facts, feelings or experiences known by a person or group of people” (Collins English Dictionary). Knowledge is derived from information but it is richer and more meaningful than information. It includes familiarity, awareness and understanding gained through experience or study, and results from making comparisons, identifying consequences, and making connections. Some experts include wisdom and insight in their definitions of knowledge. In organisational terms, knowledge is generally thought of as being “know how”, or “applied action”. The last point is an important one. Today’s organisations contain a vast amount of knowledge and the NHS is certainly no exception. However, in applying knowledge management principles and practices in our organisation, knowledge is not our end, but the means for further action. What we are trying to do is to use our knowledge to get better at doing what we do, i.e. health care and health care improvement.

1.3 Why do we need knowledge management?

Knowledge management is based on the idea that an organisation’s most valuable resource is the knowledge of its people. This is not a new idea – organisations have been managing “human resources” for years. What is new is the focus on knowledge. This focus is being driven by the accelerated rate of change in today’s organisations and in society as a whole. Knowledge management recognises that today nearly all jobs involve “knowledge work” and so all staff are “knowledge workers” to some degree or another – meaning that their job depends more on their knowledge than their manual skills. This means that creating, sharing and using knowledge are among the most important activities of nearly every person in every organisation.

It is easy to see the importance of knowledge in the health sector. As clinicians, managers and other practitioners, we all rely on what we know to do our jobs effectively. But....

–  –  –

Do we know everything we need to know or are there gaps in our knowledge? Of course there are. Medical advances are being made all the time so there is always new knowledge to be learned. Government policies are constantly evolving, as are management practices. The current modernisation programme requires us to let go of what we knew and to learn and apply new knowledge. Changing doctor-patient relationships are requiring us to revisit our whole approach to the provision of health care. And of course, every new patient that comes through our door brings a potential new learning opportunity.

Do we share what we know? The NHS is made up of over a million individuals in hundreds of organisations, each of which have their own knowledge. Is the knowledge of individuals available to the whole organisation? Is the knowledge or organisations available to the whole NHS? Not at present. How many times have we lost valuable knowledge and expertise when a staff member moves on? How many times have we “reinvented the wheel” when we could have learned from someone else’s experience? How many times have patients suffered as a result of the “postcode lottery”?

Do we use what we know to best effect? Not always. In the NHS Plan, the NHS was described as “a 1940s infrastructure operating in the 21st century”. Clearly our knowledge has not always been applied to best effect, and we have fallen behind the times. How many times have we had an idea about how a process or an activity could be improved, but felt we lacked the time or resources to do anything about it? How many times have we had an idea that might help our colleagues, but we keep quiet because our colleagues might not appreciate us “telling them how to do their job”? How many times have we implemented a new initiative, only to find we reverted back to the “old way” a few months later? Perhaps we have had insights about how our patients” needs could be better met, but there was no forum for us to share and explore those insights so we just forgot about it.

These are just a few examples.

Almost everything we do in the NHS is based on our knowledge. If we do not constantly update and renew our knowledge, share our knowledge, and then use that knowledge to do things differently and better, then our people, our organisations, our patients and the general public will ultimately suffer. We know this because it has already happened. As The NHS Plan (2000) affirms, in spite of our many achievements, the NHS has failed to keep pace with changes in our society. What can transform that, along with the current investment and modernisation programme, is harnessing the vast collective knowledge of the people working in the NHS, and using it to best effect. That is why we need knowledge management.

1.4 What does knowledge management involve?

Knowledge management is essentially about facilitating the processes by which knowledge is created, shared and used in organisations. It is not about setting up a new department or getting in a new computer system. It is about making small changes to the way everyone in the organisation works. There are many ways of looking at knowledge management and different organisations will take different approaches. Generally speaking, creating a knowledge environment usually requires changing organisational values and culture, changing people’s behaviours and work patterns, and providing people with easy access to each other and to relevant information resources.

In terms of how that is done, the processes of knowledge management are many and varied. As knowledge management is a relatively new concept, organisations are still finding their way and so there is no single agreed way forward or best practice. This is a time of much trial and error. Similarly, to simply copy the practices of another organisation would probably not work because each organisation faces a different set of knowledge management problems and challenges. Knowledge management is essentially about people – how they create, share and use knowledge, and so no knowledge management tool will work if it is not applied in a manner that is sensitive to the ways people think and behave.

That being said, there are of course a whole raft of options in terms of tools and techniques, many of which are not new. Many of the processes that currently fall under the banner of knowledge management have been around for a long time, but as part of functions such as training, human resources, internal communications, information technology, librarianship, records management and marketing to name a few. And some of those

processes can be very simple, such as:

providing induction packs full of “know how” to new staff;

conducting exit interviews when staff leave so that their knowledge is not lost to the organisation;

creating databases of all publications produced by an organisation so that staff can access them from their desk;

–  –  –

providing ongoing learning so that people can constantly update their knowledge;

encouraging people with a common interest to network with each other;

creating electronic filing systems that can be searched in a number of ways, making the information much easier to find;

redesigning offices to be open plan so that staff and managers are more visible and talk to each other more;

putting staff directories online so that people can easily find out who does what and where they are;

creating intranets so that staff can access all kinds of organisational information and knowledge that might otherwise take a great deal of time and energy to find.

1.5 Some “textbook” definitions of knowledge management

Here are a few definitions:

“Clinical knowledge management means enhancing the identification, dissemination, awareness and application of the results of research relevant to clinical practice in health and social care.” Jeremy Wyatt “The creation and subsequent management of an environment, which encourages knowledge to be created, shared, learnt, enhanced, organised and utilized for the benefit of the organisation and its customers.” Abell & Oxbrow, tfpl Ltd, 2001 “Knowledge management is a process that emphasises generating, capturing and sharing information know how and integrating these into business practices and decision making for greater organisational benefit.” Maggie Haines, NHS Acting Director of KM “The capabilities by which communities within an organisation capture the knowledge that is critical to them, constantly improve it, and make it available in the most effective manner to those people who need it, so that they can exploit it creatively to add value as a normal part of their work.” BSI’s A Guide to Good Practice in KM “Knowledge is power, which is why people who had it in the past often tried to make a secret of it.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 16 |

Similar works:

«Department of Health and Human Services OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL CMS RESPONSE TO BREACHES AND MEDICAL IDENTITY THEFT Daniel R. Levinson Inspector General October 2012 OEI-02-10-00040 CMS RESPONSE TO BREACHES AND MEDICAL IDENTITY THEFT OEI-02-10-00040 WHY WE DID THIS STUDY The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) maintains the protected health information of millions of Medicare beneficiaries. If a breach occurs and the security or privacy of this information is compromised, CMS is...»

«This is the author’s version of a work that was submitted/accepted for publication in the following source: Knicker, Axel J., Renshaw, Ian, Oldham, Anthony R.H., & Cairns, Simeon P. (2011) Interactive processes Link the multiple symptoms of fatigue in sport competition. Sports Medicine, 41(4), pp. 307-328. This file was downloaded from: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/47248/ c Copyright 2011 Adis Data Information BV Notice: Changes introduced as a result of publishing processes such as...»

«TRMM and Other Data Precipitation Data Set Documentation George J. Huffman (1) David T. Bolvin (1,2) (1) Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (2) Science Systems and Applications, Inc. 25 May 2014 “Recent” News 25 May 2014 Metop-A was restored to functionality; the date were again available starting 0746 UTC 21 May 2014. 28 March 2014 Metop-A had an apparent hardware failure at 1400 UTC on 27 March 2014 and the instrument is off. 15 February 2014 Snow...»

«AD/HD Is a Developmental Disability Mary Durheim Mary Durheim is an educational consultant in Texas and the past president of CHADD. She currently is the chair of the CHADD public policy committee and a governor appointee to the Texas Developmental Disabilities Council. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a developmental disability when it creates a functional impairment that impacts the daily functioning of child, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...»

«Disaster Recovery to the Oracle Cloud Production on Premises, DR in the Cloud ORACLE WHITE PAPER | APRIL 2016 Table of Contents Introduction 1 Disaster Recovery to the Cloud with Data Guard and Active Data Guard 2 Enabling DR on the Oracle Cloud 2 Service Level Requirements 3 Security Requirements 4 Database, Operating Environment and Prerequisites 5 Deployment Process 6 Subscribe to Oracle Database Cloud Service 6 Create an Oracle Instance 6 Configure Network 9 Cloud Network Configuration 9...»

«International Journal of Innovative ICIC International ⃝2011 ISSN 1349-4198 c Computing, Information and Control Volume 7, Number 11, November 2011 pp. 6147–6159 ACO BASED DISCOVERY OF COMPREHENSIBLE AND ACCURATE RULES FROM MEDICAL DATASETS Abdul Rauf Baig, Waseem Shahzad, Salabat Khan and Fariha Altaf Department of Computer Science National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences 15-Mauve Area, Rohtas Road, Sector H-11/4, Islamabad, Pakistan rauf.baig@nu.edu.pk Received June 2010;...»

«Sugar The Detox Challenge by: Donielle Baker of Naturally Knocked Up Page -1 Sugar Detox Challenge www.NaturallyKnockedUp.com The Sugar Detox Challenge making your way to living free of sugar Copyright © 2011 Donielle Baker photos copyright © 2011 Donielle Baker (unless otherwise noted) All Rights Reserved. warning/disclaimer: this mini ebook is not meant to be medical advice, only a reference for healthy living. None of the following have been evaluated by the FDA. or Please consult your...»

«My Doctor Says I Have Gestational Diabetes. What do I Do Now? Indispensable to human health Gestational Diabetes Educational Information from BD Consumer Healthcare This guide will answer your questions about gestational diabetes and explain the steps you can take to help you have a normal pregnancy and healthy baby. What is Gestational Diabetes? Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs only in pregnancy and usually disappears after the birth of the baby. It is present in less...»

«Nutrition Department This booklet has been developed by the Nutrition and Gastroenterology Department’s at Alfred Health, Melbourne. Inside you will find information on tube feeding at home CONTENTS 1. Your tube & feeding regime Tube details page 1 Feeding regime page 1 2. Important contact phone numbers page 1 3. Introduction What is tube feeding? page 2 Who receives tube feeding? page 2 4. The feeding tube Nasogastric tube page 3 Nasojejunal tube page 3 Gastrostomy tubes page 3—7...»

«SCCS/1249/09 Revision of 28 September 2010 Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety SCCS OPINION ON Boron compounds The SCCS adopted this opinion at its 7th plenary meeting of 22 June 2010 SCCS/1249/09 Opinion on boron compounds _ About the Scientific Committees Three independent non-food Scientific Committees provide the Commission with the scientific advice it needs when preparing policy and proposals relating to consumer safety, public health and the environment. The Committees also draw the...»

«Teaching for Meaning & Comprehension During Reading Recovery Lessons Dr. Clifford I. Johnson Georgia State University cijohnson@gsu.edu Outcomes. An understanding of the politics of !  literacy. An understanding of how we can teach !  reading as a meaning-making, comprehending process which results in readers who comprehend while they are reading in RR & in the classroom. An understanding of how to defend RR !  against the unjustified criticism that we do not teach comprehension. Dr....»

«This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the author’s institution, sharing with colleagues and providing to institution administration. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dis.xlibx.info - Thesis, dissertations, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.