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«5. Pengambilan Risiko (Risk Taking) Tujuan Pembelajaran • Menjelaskan konsep resiko • Menjelaskan bagaimana pengambilan resiko dilakukan • ...»

5. Pengambilan Risiko

(Risk Taking)

Tujuan Pembelajaran

• Menjelaskan konsep resiko

• Menjelaskan bagaimana pengambilan resiko

dilakukan

• Mengidentifikasi resiko-resiko yang potensial

terjadi ketika memulai usaha

• Menjelaskan pengelolaan resiko

Pengantar

Entrepreneur : BERANI MENGHADAPI RESIKO,

CELAAN, PENGEKANGAN, BAHKAN PENGACUHAN

Entrepreneur menurut

David McClelland

• Memiliki kecenderungan mengambil risiko yg moderat (risiko yang terhitung atau calculated risk).

• mempunyai persepsi mengenai kemungkinan mencapai keberhasilan Landau's classification of entrepreneurial types Typology of Entrepreneurial Styles Source: Thomas Monroy and Robert Folger, “A Typology of Entrepreneurial Styles: Beyond Economic Rationality,” Journal of Private Enterprise IX(2) (1993): 71.

The Level Of Entrepreneur Very Risk Manager Risk Taker Risk Manager Medium Risk Taker Little Risk Free Risk Self Businessman Unemployee Employee Investor Gambler (business Employee (Speculative) owner system) (self Business) Entrepreneurship Theory

• Entrepreneurs cause entrepreneurship.

– Entrepreneurship is a function of the

entrepreneur:

E f (e) – Entrepreneurship is the interaction of skills related to inner control, planning and goal setting, risk taking, innovation, reality perception, use of feedback, decision making, human relations, and independence.

WHAT IS RISK?

The uncertainty of an event occurring that could have an impact on the achievement of objectives.

It is also the probability of something you do not want to happen, happening.

Pengertian Resiko

• Definisi Resiko – Ketidakpastian (uncertainty) – Konsekuensi yang memunculkan dampak yang merugikan – Risiko dan Pengambilan keputusan bisnis – Hubungan antara: Risk - Risiko – Rizki – Rejeki

• Sesuatu yang buruk (tidak diinginkan), baik yang sudah diperhitungkan maupun yang belum diperhitungkan, yang merupakan suatu akibat dari suatu tindakan atau kegiatan

• Motivasi mengambil resiko – Menginginkan pengembalian yang sepadan (return)

• mampu mengkalkulasi risiko – Kepepet

• tidak mampu mengkalkulasi risiko, atau

• tidak tahu risiko yang dihadapi

EXAMPLES OF RISK

 risk of injury to staff and clients  risk of buildings being vandalised  risk of harm to authorised and unauthorised visitors  risk of contracting communicable diseases  risk of theft

EXAMPLES OF RISK

 risk of fraud  risk of storm and/or water damage  risk of poorly drafted contracts  risk of assault  risk of bad personnel appointments  risk of adverse publicity  risk of loss of computer data.

Jenis-jenis Risiko Dalam Bisnis – Risiko Murni

• Risiko hilang/rusaknya aset yang dimiliki

• Risiko Kecelakaan kerja

• Risiko akibat tuntutan hukum

• Risiko operasional lainnya

• Bencana alam (force majure) – Risiko spekulatif

• Risiko Perubahan Harga – Perubahan harga input – Perubahan harga output

• Risiko Kredit Kriteria Resiko

• Resiko Tinggi Keberhasilannya sangat kecil dibanding kegagalannya (sering gagal)

• Resiko Rendah Keberhasilan lebih besar dibandingkan dengan kegagalannya (sering berhasil)

• Resiko Sedang Keberhasilan relatif lebih besar dibandingkan dengan kegagalannya Bentuk Kerugian Akibat Risiko – Kerugian Langsung

• Nominal yang harus ditanggung akibat dampak langsung risiko yang terjadi.

– Kerugian Tidak Langsung

• Kemungkinan sales/profit yang gagal diterima

• Munculnya biaya operasional tambahan

• Kesempatan investasi yang hilang

• Kerugian lainnya The reason people don’t take risks is generally because they are not o.k. with the possibility of failure. We must overcome the fear of losing everything if we expect to gain more.

–  –  –

Risk taking is positive, not implicitly negative.

Risk Management is everybody’s business Risk Management is not just the responsibility of management For Risk Management to be effective it must be implemented by every person in the organisation Risk Management must become an integral part of the organisational culture The risk makers and risk takers must be the risk managers.

MANAGING RISK

We all manage risk consciously or unconsciously - but rarely systematically Managing risk means forward thinking Managing risk means responsible thinking Managing risk means balanced thinking Risk Management provides a framework to facilitate more effective decision making Risk Management is all about maximising opportunity by managing risk.

Where do risks come from?

• Risk involves uncertainty about the likelihood of events and the value of their consequences.

• Risk arises from interactions between people and their social and physical environment.

• Risk depends not only on physical conditions but also on human actions and decisions.

Identification of Sources of Risk personnel/human behaviour management activities and controls economic circumstances natural and unnatural events political circumstances technology/technical issues commercial and legal relationships public/professional/product liability the activity itself.





Risks Categories

1. Strategic Risks

a. Environment Risks – Natural and man-made disasters – Political/country – Laws and regulations – Industry – Competitors – Financial Markets b. Organisation Risks – Corporate Objectives and Strategies – Planning – Resource Allocation – Monitoring – Mergers, acquisitions and divestitures – Joint Ventures and alliances – Leadership – Vision – Judgement – Succession Planning – Tone at the Top – Management – Accountability – Authority – Responsibility – Corporate Governance – Ethics – Reputation – Values – Fraud and illegal acts – Human Resources – Performance Rewards – Benefits – Workplace environment – Diversity

2. Operating Risks

• Workforce – Hiring – Knowledge and skills – Development and training – Size – Safety

• Suppliers – Outsourcing – Procurement practices – Availability, price and quality of suppliers’ products and services

• Physical Plant – Capacity – Technology/obsolescence

• Protection – Physical plant and other tangible assets – Knowledge and intellectual property 2 Operating Risks (Cont’d)

• Products and Services – Development – Quality – Pricing – Cost – Delivery – Consumer protection – Technology/obsolesence

• Customers – Needs – Satisfaction – Credit

• Regulatory Compliance – Employment – Products and services – Environmental – ALL relevant Laws

3. Financial Risks

• Capital/Financing – Availability – Interest rates – Creditworthiness

• Investing – Cash availability – Securities – Receivables – Inventories – Derivatives

• Regulatory Compliance – Security – Taxation

4. Information Risks

• Information Risks – Reliability – Sufficiency – Protection – Technology

• Strategic Information – Relevance and accuracy of measurements – Availability – Assumptions

• Operating Information – Relevance and accuracy of measurements – Availability – Regulatory Reporting

• Financial Information – Relevance and accuracy of measurements – Accounting – Budgets – Taxation – Financial Reporting – Regulatory Reporting

HOW DO ENTREPRENEURS MAKE PLANS TO

MANAGE RISK????

1. Analyzing current and future economic and market conditions.

2. Considering the consequences of alternative actions

3. Making reasonable decisions in response to conditions as they develop and change.

What to do about the risk

• RISK AVOIDANCE (eliminating the risk)

• RISK REDUCTION (minimizing the risk)

• RISK TRANSFER

• RISK ASSUMPTION Most entrepreneurs use a combination of methods when controlling and managing risks.

Bagaimana Mengkalkulasi Risiko – Tentukan seberapa sering risiko tersebut terjadi (frekuensi atau probability).

– Tentukan dampak yang timul dari risiko yang terjadi (dampak).

– Hitung kemungkinan prediksi kerugian, dengan

formula:

Frekuensi x Dampak Contoh – Risiko terjadinya pencurian barang dagangan – Frekuensi: 1 bulan 5 kali – Dampak: Dalam setiap kejadian rata-rata kerugian yang ditanggung adalah Rp 300 ribu – Kemungkinan prediksi kerugian:

5 x 300.000 = 1.500.000 Artinya: Dalam satu bulan terdapat risiko pencurian barang dagangan yg berpotensi menyebabkan kerugian sebesar Rp1,5 juta Pengelolaan Risiko – Mulai dari Risiko yang memiliki kemungkinan prediksi kerugian terbesar (prinsip Pareto) – Pilihan Strategi Pengelolaan:

• Dikontrol, supaya risiko-risiko tidak muncul, misal: SOP, Quality Control.

• Ditransfer kepada pihak lain, misal: konsumen, supplier dan asuransi.

• Dibiayai sendiri, dibuat cadangan dana untuk membiayai jika risiko terjadi.

Tips & Trik Menghadapi risiko – Perlu difahami bahwa risiko tidak untuk menjadi penghambat untuk maju. Risiko harus diambil sebagai konsekuensi menginginkan sesuatu yang lebih baik (keberhasilan).

– Identifikasi risiko apa yang berpotensi muncul dalam bisnis.

– Identifikasi seberapa sering risiko tersebut muncul.

– Identifikasi seberapa besar dampak dari risiko yang muncul tersebut.

– Siapkan langkah-langkah mitigasi risiko hanya pada risiko yang dominan/prioritas.

The greatest risk of all is to take no risk at all!





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