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«rev. Jan. 20, 2016 ++ Apr. ITF-220 Economics of International Financial Policy Syllabus, Spring 2016 Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University ...»

rev. Jan. 20, 2016 ++ Apr.

ITF-220 Economics of International Financial Policy

Syllabus, Spring 2016

Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University

Staff: Professor: Jeffrey Frankel Littauer 217, HKS

Faculty Assistant: Minoo Ghoreishi Belfer 505 (617) 384-7329

Teaching Fellow: Martin Kessler Course Assistant: Ed Cuipa

Times: Lectures: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 1:15-2:30 p.m., Littauer 280 Review session: Fridays, 11:45-1:00, Starr Final exam: Wednesday, May 4, 2016, 3:00-6:00 p.m.

Prospectus Topics covered: What is the role of monetary and fiscal policy in an open economy? What determines the balance of payments, the level of economic activity, and inflation? Should countries fix their exchange rates, or let them float?

How does the globalization of financial markets affect these and other policy questions?

This course deals with the macroeconomics of open economies. The emphasis will be on models appropriate to major countries. Topics include the foreign exchange market, devaluation, and import and export elasticities; the simultaneous determination of the trade balance, national income, the balance of payments, money flows and price levels; capital flows and our increasingly-integrated financial markets; monetary and fiscal policy in open economies;

international macroeconomic interdependence and policy coordination; supply relationships and nominal anchors for monetary policy; currency unions, the determination of exchange rates in international money markets; and international portfolio diversification.

Nature of the approach: The course is a relatively comprehensive treatment of standard textbook models in the area of open-economy macroeconomics. Although real-world examples are sprinkled throughout, the course relies very heavily on algebraic and graphical analysis, as is customary in economics classes.

Who should take the course: Only those who are quite comfortable with algebraic and graphical analysis should enroll.

This is not an appropriate course for students who want some basic general exposure to international economics.

Prerequisites: Familiarity with the principles of economics and with intermediate-level macroeconomics is necessary, particularly standard models of monetary and fiscal policy and their effects on interest rates and income. API-101 and API-121, respectively, satisfy the prerequisites for micro and macroeconomics, as do Econ 1010a (or 1011a) and 1010b (or 1011b) in FAS. Some knowledge of international trade theory and econometric techniques is also desirable, but definitely not essential.Students must be comfortable with algebra.

Problem Sets: Seven quantitative problem sets are planned. For each problem set, students can choose whether to work alone or in groups, but must indicate which option they have chosen when handing in the problem set. Those who work alone will receive a small point boost on that problem set.

Grading: Problem sets -- 20%; mid-term exam – 30%; final exam -- 50%.

–  –  –

Friday sessions will consist of review, extensions, applications, and questions and answers regarding the week’s topic.

The required text is World Trade and Payments, by R.Caves, J.Frankel, and R.Jones (10th edition, Addison Wesley, 2007). Additional readings are available via links on the course webpage.

–  –  –

Readings The required textbook reading is the second half of World Trade and Payments, R.Caves, J.Frankel, and R.Jones, 10th ed. (Addison-Wesley), 2007.

Unless otherwise indicated, links to readings listed below are posted on the course webpage.

* asterisk denotes recommended readings ** double asterisk denotes most highly required (L numbers correspond to scheduled lectures.) Balance of Payments Accounting (Lecture 1) “Tourism and the Trade Balance: A Number of Great Import,” The Economist, Feb. 15, 2014. ** “The Other Deficit,” The Economist, October 17, 2015. ** The Trade Balance The effect of currency depreciation on the trade balance (L2-L3) Paul Krugman, 1991, "Introduction," in International Adjustment and Financing: The Lessons of 1985-1991, C.F.Bergsten, ed. (Institute for International Economics): 3-12.

“Petri-dish economies: Poland – Few woes in Warsaw,” Economist, April 30, 2011, p. 83. ** Application of the marginal propensity to import to the Great Recession of 2008-09 (L4)

M.Bussière, G.Callegari, F.Ghironi, G.Sestieri, & N.Yamano, 2013, "Estimating Trade Elasticities:

Demand Composition and the Trade Collapse of 2008-2009." American Economic Journal:

Macroeconomics, 5(3), July, pp. 118-51. NBER WP 17712. Summarized in VoxEU, 2012. ** Fiscal Policy and Keynesian Multipliers (L5-7, L13-16) Martin Feldstein, 2009, “Rethinking the Role of Fiscal Policy,” Amer.Ec.Rev 99, no.2, 556-59. * Ethan Ilzetzki, Enrique Mendoza, and Carlos Vegh, 2013, "How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?,” Journal of Monetary Economics, vol. 60(2), 239-254. NBER WP 16479 or IMF WP 1152, 2011. Summarized in NBER Digest, 2011. ** Oscar Jorda and Alan Taylor, 2013, “Time for Austerity: Estimating the Average Treatment Effect of Fiscal Policy,” NBER WP no. 19414. Summarized in Vox, July 20, 2013.

Olivier Blanchard and Daniel Leigh, 2014, “Learning about Fiscal Multipliers from Growth Forecast Errors” IMF Economic Review, 62, 179–212. IMF Working Paper 13-1, 2013 “A stimulating question: Can emerging economies now afford counter-cyclical policies?” The Economist, Dec. 13, 2008, p. 90.





“Chile’s Economy: Cashing in the fruits of rigor,” The Economist, Feb. 19, 2009. * “Economics focus: Much ado about multipliers,” The Economist, Sept. 26, 2009, p. 90.

Money and the Balance of Payments (L8) The gold standard and Bretton Woods (L9) Richard Cooper, “The Gold Standard: Historical Facts and Future Prospects,” abridged in B.Eichengreen, The Gold Standard in Theory and History (Methuen: NY), 1995, pp.251-271.

“The global monetary system: Not floating, but flailing,” The Economist, July 5, 2014, 57-58. * Purchasing power parity (L10) “Big Mac index: bunfight – Currency wars: the burgers verdict,” The Economist, Feb.2, 2013. * The Big Mac index: Interactive Currency Comparison Tool. [E.g., January 2016.] ** Michael Pakko and Patricia Pollard, 2003, “Burgernomics: A Big Mac Guide to Purchasing Power Parity,” Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, Nov/Dec., 9-28.

The Globalization of Financial Markets The growth of forex trading and other financial markets (L11) “Finance: Trick or Treat?” The Economist, Oct. 23, 1999, p. 91-92.

“Future Perfect,” The Economist, Nov. 27, 1999, pp. 81-82. * Pros and cons of open financial markets (L12) “Policing the frontiers of finance – Is foreign capital a luxury that poor countries can live without?” [summary of Rodrik & Subramanian], The Economist, Apr. 12, 2008, p. 87.

“Economics Focus: Capital Bonanzas,” [summary of Reinhart & Reinhart] Economist, Sept.27, 2008, p.92. ** “Capital controversy,” The Economist, April 14, 2012, p.86.

“An on-off relationship,” The Economist, Dec. 13, 2014. * The Impossible Trinity (L17) “China’s ‘trilemma’ makes it vulnerable to more shocks,” Financial Times, Feb. 22, 2016.

Emerging markets: inflows and crises (L12 & L18) Guillermo Calvo, Leo Leiderman and Carmen Reinhart, “Inflows of Capital to Developing Countries in the 1990s, “ Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10, no. 2, Spring 1996, 123-139. * “Emerging-market debt: A run for your money,” Economist, Aug.28, 2010, p.66.

“Brazil’s economy: Wild horses – A soaring currency…” Economist, Apr. 23, 2011.

“Economic epidemiology,” The Economist, June 16, 2012.

“Asia’s great moderation,” The Economist, Nov. 10, 2012.

“India on the brink: How India got its funk,” The Economist, Aug. 24, 2013, p.12. * “Financial indulgence,” The Economist, April 5, 2014, p.69. * The Global Macroeconomic System International Macroeconomic Policy Coordination (L19) “Brown and Sarkozy seek fiscal boost,” Financial Times, December 8, 2008. * “Fingers in the dyke,” The Economist, March 21, 2009. * ”What a carry-on” Economist Buttonwood ” Nov.21, 2015. * Olivier Blanchard, Jonathan Ostry, and Atish R. Ghosh, “International Policy Coordination: The Loch Ness Monster,” iMFdirect, Dec.15, 2013.

Jeffrey Frankel, 2016, "International Coordination," paper written for Policy Challenges in a Diverging Global Economy, forthcoming, edited by R.Glick and M.Spiegel (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco); 2015 Asia Economic Policy Conference. HKS RWP 16-02. Summary in VoxEU, Dec. 2015.

Monetary growth, Supply and Inflation (L20) “Some like it hot: Which emerging economies are at greatest risk of overheating?” Economist, July 2, 2011, p. 65. ** “Argentina’s inflation problem: The price of cooking the books,” Economist, Feb.25, 2012, 47-8.

“Nigeria’s central bank chief warns on Independence,” Financial Times, June 7, 2012.

“China drains cash to curb inflation,” Financial Times, Feb. 22, 2013.

Mario Blejer, 2013, “Political Central Banking: Get ready for the end of central bank independence,” The International Economy, 27, no.2, spring, pp. 32-33.

Adair Turner, 2015, “Central Banking after the Crisis: No Return to Past Certainties,” Business Economics, 50, no. 3, pp.114-127.

Exchange Rates Monetary Union (L21) Jürgen Stark, “German prudence is not to blame for the eurozone's ills,” Financial Times, Feb.11, 2015. * Jay Shambaugh, 2012, “The Euro’s Three Crises,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring, 157-211. Summary.

J. Frankel, “The Euro Crisis” pdf, Journal of Policy Modeling, June 2015. HKS RWP13-015.

Monetary Determination of Exchange Rates (L22-L23) “Rudiger Dornbusch,” The Economist, Aug. 10, 2002, p. 72.

Schools Brief: “Monopoly Power Over Money,” The Economist, Nov.18, 1999. * The Carry Trade and Bias in the Forward Exchange Market (L24) J. Frankel, 2008, "Carried Away," Milken Institute Review, Q1. Or full version. * Ken Froot & Richard Thaler, 1990, “Anomalies: Foreign Exchange,” JEP 4, no.3, Summer, 179-92.





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